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94 visitors think this article is helpful.Thesis of a cruel angel sheet music Evangelion sheet music piano tabs with cruel angel thesis Instrumental versions of cruel angel thesis sheet music include “The Heady A cruel angel s.The Art Historian and the Neurobiologist A conversation Professional Academic Help. Starting from Discounts buy research paper Rated 3 stars, based on 197 customer reviews From $9.17 per page Available! Order now! Case study method dissertation scientific research proposal template writing a good college admissions essay download mba application essay help..The Art Historian and the Neurobiologist A conversation.
The stock price for BB&T has been a steady riser over the last two years and doesn't show signs in slowing down.The Other, Treasury and Corporate includes housing investments.
Company reports record Q2 earnings one year following large Pennsylvania market acquisitions 25 Jun 2016 - We did an immigration AMA a few months ago and thought it might be time to do another. I'll be here But everything on the web says I need to wait at least 6 months before leaving the company after I receive green card, otherwise they can kick me out for fraud when I apply for citizenship later. But some .Company reports record Q2 earnings one year following large Pennsylvania market acquisitions.At that time, AMA Institute of Computer Studies offered only short-term courses in Electronic Data Processing Fundamentals, Basic Programming, and Technology Career.Brain, Behavior, and Human Well-Being: Senior Seminar in Neural and Behavioral Sciences A seminar course and on-line public discussions exploring past and present research in the neural and behavioral sciences.Simple Networks, Simple Rules: Learning and Creating Categories Can simple things learn? Pattern Detection and Serendipity Can you find Serendip? If the mind is in the brain and the brain, of course, is a part of the body, then the distinction normally made between mind and body needs to be reconsidered.
Mind and Body: Ren Descartes to William James An exhibit with extensive documentation.
Contrast/Color "Illusions" Are visual illusions "tricks"? Senior Seminar in Neural and Behavioral Sciences (Spring 08) and associated on-line forums.Creativity, the Mind, and the Brain A senior thesis.The 33% increase will allow larger dividend payouts for the shareholders and improve the stock appeal.said Tuesday it is raising its quarterly common stock cash dividend by 3 cents to 33 cents a share.The company operates through the following segments: Community Banking, Residential Mortgage Banking, Dealer Financial Services, Specialized Lending, Insurance Holdings, Financial Services and Other, Treasury and Corporate.
Next Thesis Process - Sustainable Communities - Northern Arizona.To obtain your Master of Arts in Sustainable Communities degree, you must author and present a thesis to the public and to your committee.The House of Representatives is looking to put the Financial Choice Act into law, a bill that will remove key parts of Dodd-Frank.AMA claimed that Padilla was enrolled by the university as a freshman for the course Information Technology.
Making Sense of Depression A collection of materials that can perhaps contribute to new and more useful ways of thinking about depression and on-line forum.Student population mainly determine the longevity of the campuses.From Complexity to Emergence and Beyond: Towards Empirical Non-Foundationalism as a Guide to Inquiry A published paper (Word file).
Presumptions Underlying Contrast Illusions Is "reality" constant? Spiral Illusion An interactive exhibit involving perception of color.Diversity and Deviance: A Biological Perspective An essay.Does Biology Have Anything to Contribute to Thinking About Sex and Gender? Making Sense of Diversity: A conversation at Bryn Mawr College Archived notes and forum discussions.Additionally, Daryl Bible expressed that the company is looking to focus its growth on the Pennsylvania and Texas markets.Culture As Disability An essay exploring "disabilities", "abilities", and their relation to culture.
Two provincial campuses were then founded in Cebu and Davao City.Measure for Measure: An Artistic Exploration of Eating Disorders, Body Image, and the Self A gallery.Next /files/bb Blackbelt thesis, Lisa Wise Page 1 of 5 The structured curriculum of ITF Taekwon-Do by Lisa Wise, Blackbelt thesis for Sabum Spiridon Cariotis June.In 1991, Aguiluz gained accreditation for AMA Computer College in the American League of Colleges and Universities (ALOCU), thus, making AMA the first Filipino and non-American school to do so.AMACU's Quality Management System has been ISO 9001-certified since March 1999 by Soci t G n rale de Surveillance International Certification Services Canada, Inc.
Aguiluz resigned from the Commission in November 1999 due to a controversial purchase of equipment by the commission from a subsidiary of the AMA Group of Companies.Arroyo was invited to AMA's sponsored political rallies.AMA University, the Asia's first and largest network of Schools and Universities has finally launched the very first and only full online platform offering full degree programs in the Philippines.BB&T generates 15% of its revenue from the insurance business, an exceptionally high number relative to many banks, and is looking to set a long-term goal of 20% for the company.With uncertainty surrounding government changes in regulations now may be the time to invest in banks.
Padilla responded to news reporters and stated that it was much of his surprise that he was drafted without his prior knowledge and declined to join the basketball league.Links below are to materials related to current developments in understanding the brain and the implications.The NBI charged De Guzman for violation of Republic Act 8484 or the Access Devices Regulation Act o F 1998.Have you ever wondered how famous writers make such beautiful words flow from their pens (or their word processors)? Many spectators in the draft event at the PBA head office in Libis, Quezon City were surprised with the selection as Padilla was not part of the 153 players who submitted their application for the draft.Next Reed College Theatre Thesis Archive Thesis Archive.
through a devised theatrical adaptation of Kevin Brockmeier's "The Year of Silence" - Leah Artenian directing; Who Killed B.6% in 2017, while the S&P 500 has gained 10%.operates as a holding company for Branch Banking & Trust Co.
and continual exploration of issues relating to mental health and broader issues relating to body/brain/mind/self.Or is there a way that matter could be organized that gives us some genuine capabilities of personal responsibility and free will? Evolution/Science: Inverting the Relationship Between Randomness and Meaning An essay and on-line forum.And how do individuals and cultures relate to one another? Deregulation will have a lasting effect on banks and improve the capability of large financial institutions such as BB&T.With two of the flagship which AMA University is known for and has pioneered also in the Philippines, Bachelor of Science in Computer Science and Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, these CHEd and Level 3 PACUCOA Accredited Programs are now accessible without the hassle of flying to the Philippines or going to school.
Many militant groups and opposition politicians questioned the survey questions.However, no institution in the country offered computer education to professionals.As a dominant provider of holistic, relevant, and quality IT-based education, AMA University Online Education aims to educate every Filipino and anyone in the world who needs access to education in any region, in different timezone hence producing professionals and leaders that will be responsive to the developments of technology and the international community.It is one of the two official student organizations of the university, the other being the Student Council (SC).
In 1995, Arroyo attended a political rally in AMA when she ran for re-election as senator.
Next Thesis Writing - Barli Bram Class Info This fantastic, free Google site contains info related to my classes or courses at the English Language Education Programme or Prodi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris PBI - Penbagris Sanata Dharma Univer.Stock prices for BB&T have risen almost $10 from this time last year and closed at $46.The Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) did not accredit other AMA campuses to use the title "University" and only permitted to use the title of "College" or "Institute" as these campuses have not met the requirements needed by the Philippine academic regulatory body.The students were dismissed from the school by the area director, school director and the school's disciplinary board after they held a protest rally in front of the school campus without the necessary permit.
Help Desk Repair provides hardware and connectivity services for current students, and active or retired faculty and staff.If everything is in the brain how does that influence what we understand about "understanding" and how we achieve understandings? The virus was traced to an apartment room in downtown Manila where De Guzman was residing.Can thinking about the brain contribute to new understandings and explanations of culture and social organization? Under a large-scale repeal of Dodd-Frank, BB&T will have the ability to make major changes to improve their bottom line for shareholders.The Insurance Holdings segment offers property and casualty, employee benefits and life insurance to businesses and individuals, as well as surety coverage and title insurance to small businesses.As a potential investor, I would recommend purchasing this stock now before BB&T moves itself into the powerhouse tier of the banking industry.
Next BB doktori ertekezes tezisei angol javitott vegleges - SZIE PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN SUSTAINABLE RURAL.DEVELOPMENT THE POTENTIAL OF PARTICIPATORY ACTION.This decision is a sign that although the cost of mergers has been high the return on the investments have been larger.
Conclusion BB&T has been one of the most successful companies at growing over the last few years.The university serves as the flagship brand of the AMA Education System (AMAES).Register in the GTC forum and you'll have access to many free goodies! President Trump hasn't shown the ability to push major legislation through and I believe Dodd-Frank will not be leaving anytime soon.The e-mail replies from angry virus recipients to the creator passed through the United States e-mail address "[email protected] ", which then forwarded them to the two Access.Aguiluz founded the AMA Institute of Computer Studies with the first computer school located along Shaw Boulevard on 20 October 1980.
I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.Taxable equivalent revenue was a record $2.The exhibits and materials collected here are intended to make it possible for you to share some of the kinds of experiences which suggest that indeed the nervous system may be the heart of the matter and to think about the implications and the new questions this raises.
Next Bachelor / Master thesis topics in the group of Ben.Brain and Education: Thinking About New Directions and on-line forum.
After she left the room, she realized the envelope was left behind, hence she returned to the comfort room, but the envelope was already gone.Shortly after, it established its main campus in Quezon City.The advancement of technology opened AMA an opportunity to provide access and finish a degree through smartphone, tablet, laptop, or desktop making it very convenient for every student to learn and master lectures at their own pace, through their own ways.Which means once enrolled, the student may start right away and finish the degree within a 14-week duration.The virus started with "ILOVEYOU" in the subject line, but several variations appeared soon afterward, including one masquerading as an e-mail joke and another as a receipt for a Mother's Day gift.
Next Bachelor Project / Thesis Bachelor Project / Thesis.Thesis Individual report of the project article.Enrolment October 2017 Project descriptions on BB.
Every trimester in AMA University Online lasts for 14 weeks (eq.The student will no longer be late as they could access the lessons and even take assessments on their most convenient time, at their most convenient place.The Psychoanalyst and the Neurobiologist A conversation.Dodd-Frank imposes many regulatory burdens on banks to prevent another financial crisis like 2008, but stunts the growth ability of many large banks.
What are the risks, the gains, the new landscapes which would be opened to explore? It specializes in electronic, information, and communication technologies.
Next Thesis - Lisa Werden 2012- The Atrium - University of Guelph Small Mammals in the Thousand Islands Region by.burgdorferi Bb, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, and its tick vector.Net (Philippine Internet Service Provider) e-mail accounts used by the virus creator - "[email protected]" and "[email protected]".
A high school principal was promoted on but an incident four days later led to her dismissal.The "Nature" of Desire An illustrated senior thesis.And that becoming something different means changing the brain? Do we lose something, or is the brain actually big enough, as Dickinson suggested, to contain everything? Disability: Images and Thoughts A gallery with on-line forums.Next DIGS-BB Dresden International Graduate School for Biomedicine.The DIGS-BB is a structured international PhD Program in Dresden, Germany.
Coordination without a leader: flocking An interactive exhibit.The students were ordered dismissed by school management 4 October 2004 for holding a protest rally in front of the school.Amable Aguiluz V was Joseph Estrada's political endorser in the 1998 Presidential elections.served as Chairman and Auditor-general of the Commission on Audit in the 1960s.Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, she still continues to implement good reforms.
The GOP has promised a large-scale rollback of Dodd-Frank, but I am hesitant that those promises will be kept with the current uncertainty surrounding the economy.Since 1987, all major AMA colleges have been interconnected through a local area network (LAN), which converted them into one nationwide school system.AMACC is accredited by the National Computing Centre United Kingdom.After commencement day on , an e-mail trojan called "ILOVEYOU" spread internationally and caused delays in several online transactions.The Residential Mortgage Banking segment retains and services mortgage loans originated by the banking network as well as those purchased from various correspondent originators.
The Specialized Lending segment includes commercial finance, which manages asset-based working capital financing, supply chain financing, export-import finance, accounts receivable management, credit enhancement and mortgage warehouse lending; and governmental finance, which provides tax-exempt financing to meet the capital project needs of local governments.They said that the dismissal of the students was based on a resolution dated 9 October issued by Student Disciplinary Tribunal, which states that holding of rallies or any related activities without the necessary permit from an authorized school officer is a major offense that merits dismissal as provided for in the student handbook.Next scientific nomenclature within specific kingdoms.Usually, animals & plants are identified by common and scientific names.Common name: These are used locally and may vary by region or country.
Scientific name: These are unique names used by the scientific community to accurately and universally identify species.International Codes of Nomenclature Taxonomists have established several “codes” for scientific nomenclature.These codes are universal and are periodically updated by consensus.The protocol for naming species was invented in the 1700s by Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus.Linnaeus created the system of “binomial nomenclature,” which uses only two designations –genus and species epithet as the species name.
In the mid-1800s, scientists agreed on an expanded system of nomenclature.The following codes are used today: Hierarchy Known as the “taxonomic hierarchy,” the system consists of several groups of species based on genetic and phylogenic characteristics.” The first kingdom comprised only two types of living organisms—animals and plants.We have seven classifications within the kingdom domain—Bacteria, Archaea, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
Note that the designations are in Latin.This could be challenging for some who are not familiar with that language; however, the terms are globally consistent.There is no need to interpret them or translate them into another language.The levels from highest to lowest classification are as follows: Kingdom Binomial Name The binomial name consists of a genus name and specific epithet. The scientific names of species are italicized.
The genus name is always capitalized and is written first; the species epithet follows the genus name and is not capitalized.From above example, note that the classifications go from general (Animalia) to specific ( C.A species, by definition, is the combination of both the genus and species epithet, not just the epithet.
For example, we can use the term gray wolf but we cannot use just Canis or Canis lupus is a species.Animal Kingdom When writing, we use both the scientific name and the “common” name on the first mention.We then choose which to use throughout and make it consistent.Gray wolf ( Canis lupus) is native to North America and Eurasia.
In subsequent references, we can use either the common or scientific name.
If we use the scientific name, we need only to use the first letter of the genus followed by a period and the species epithet.For example: In North America, the In North America, C.It is also common to refer to several species under one genus when you want to point out some similar characteristics within a genus.For example: All species of You could also write this same information another way as follows: Canis spp.
are known to be moderate to large and have large skulls.” is an abbreviation for “several species” (“sp” is the designation for one species) in the genus.If you are focusing on a few species in particular, you would refer to the species name of each one.
You might also see a scientific name followed by an initial or abbreviation.This would denote the person who discovered or named the species.For example, in Amaranthus retroflexus L., the L (not italicized) refers to the original name given by Linnaeus.Exceptions There are a few exceptions to some of these rules.
First, the entire genus name must be spelled out if it begins a sentence, even if a subsequent reference: Canis lupus was nearly hunted to extinction in North America.Second, when more than one species has the same genus initial but come from different genera, the genera names are spelled out to avoid confusion: Both the gray wolf ( Castor Canadensis) are native to North America.In this case, it is best to use the common name after the first mention, but either format is correct.Titles and Headers A Study of the History of CANIS LUPUS in North America In an italicized header, the species name can be written in non-italic style.Similar to animal names, it is common to see a species epithet that refers to a geographic area or the person who discovered it.Although these are proper nouns, they are still written in lowercase font.
Be mindful that some word processors might attempt to capitalize these references.This is something to check when proofreading your text.For example,Consistency One of the basic rules of scientific writing is consistency.Regardless of your choice of scientific or common name, you must maintain consistency.
Always check the author guidelines when preparing manuscripts.Formats for citations and references, headings, and section placement can be different.Be assured that the format for writing scientific names is internationally consistent regardless of the intended journal.You see that the common name of the species you are studying has several variations depending on geographic area.
Which do you use and why? What other challenges do you face when writing scientific nomenclature? Share with us in the comments section below! ImageJ is a software package developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).Formerly known as NIH Image, it was originally developed for the McIntosh computer system. However, it is now also available for Windows and Linux.The software was developed to allow better image analysis and enhancement.4 or later versions of Java and can be used either as an online application or downloaded on your computer.Features ImageJ is a public domain software, which means that it is available without copyright restriction.Users are allowed to run the program, share copies, and make positive changes to the program.ImageJ works with several file formats, such as TIFF, JPEG, ASCII, FITS, and more.It is frequently used for analyzing fluorescence microscopy images, dot blot analysis, area measurements, particle counting, segmentation and measurements of spatial or temporal features of biological elements, and more.
Some of the main features of the program are as follows.These features are especially important to researchers for analyzing their field photographs and images.Interactive: Allows you to easily edit and analyze images for printing.Supported Formats: Reads TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS, RAW, and several other formats.
Parallel Functions: Supports several images at one time in one display window.
Performs simultaneous functions on these images.ROI (Region of Interest) manager helps in working with multiple selections (all types–points, lines, and text) from different stacks, image locations, and imagesOverlays are used to annotate images and mix image ROIs at different opacity levels, allowing to create and work on images non-destructivelyCalculations: Creates statistics according to user-defined parameters, such as mean and standard deviation, using standard SI units.Measurements: Based on the image, determines distance, area, and other geometric measurements.Output: Creates histograms of population densities and several other types of graphs.Scaling: Allows you to zoom in, zoom out, or reorient images.
Photo Editing: Allows you to edit images to remove flaws, sharpen or mute the image, and apply filters.You can also create different geometric shapes (polygons, arrows, etc.The created shapes can be pasted onto other images as well.Image sets, called stacks are often used in ImageJ todisplay multiple spatially or temporally related images in a single window Plugins: Allows you to write your own plugins to customize the program to fit your needs.
Macros: You can create and debug macros that will automate the tasks used most often.Applets and Servlets: You can develop your own mini-programs to fit your needs.Color: Gray-scale and indexed color are available to help speed up image processing.When speed is not an issue, many other color options are available for creating additional effects.Ease of Use ImageJ offers toolbar, status bar, and progress bar.
For instance, toolbar provides tools for selecting, zooming, and scrolling images.The status and progress bar shows several features during the program such as time lapsed for current operations, memory used, and memory remaining.It allows multiple images to be displayed at a time.It can also show images in one window that are spatially or temporally similar, called stacks.The toolbar consists oftools for making selections, drawings, zooming, scrolling, and moreAdditional User-Friendly Capabilities ImageJ network of users support researchers who tend to use the same type of images in their reports.
This is valuable for discussing the program’s usage issues and updates.Additionally, it can process 40 million pixels per second! This helps as researchers certainly don’t want to spend much time trying to process images to create the output that depicts research data.If you are already an ImageJ user, we would love to hear about your experience with this exciting tool.Is it easy to use for analyzing and processing images? Which features do you like most? Please feel free to share your thoughts with us by commenting in the section below.You’ve spent months or years conducting your academic research.
Now it’s time to write your journal article.For some, this can become a daunting task because writing is not their forte.
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It might become difficult to even start writing.However, once you organize your thoughts and begin writing them down, the overall task will become easier.We provide some helpful tips for you here Get DISCOUNT Now! Academic Papers 20 page research paper due in 2 days professional research papers sources for a research paper a good thesis statement for technology a perfect resume example. Dreams essay example thesis driven paper essay writing service recommendation help grammar homework..
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Organize Your Thoughts Perhaps one of the most important tasks before you even begin to write is to get organized.By this point, your data is compiled and analyzed These resources comprise tips for writing, submission, journal selection, following ethical practices, and every other aspect that a researcher would want to know about. At Enago, we Get instant access to the latest updates in academic publishing 20 Nov Manuscript Drafting: Why is Subject-Verb Agreement Important?.By this point, your data is compiled and analyzed.You most likely also have many pages of “notes” These resources comprise tips for writing, submission, journal selection, following ethical practices, and every other aspect that a researcher would want to know about. At Enago, we Get instant access to the latest updates in academic publishing 20 Nov Manuscript Drafting: Why is Subject-Verb Agreement Important?.You most likely also have many pages of “notes”.Fortunately, this is much easier to do than in the past with hand-written notes razestudios.net/report/astronomy.php.
Fortunately, this is much easier to do than in the past with hand-written notes.
Presuming that these tasks are completed, what’s next? When suggesting that you organize your thoughts, we mean to take a look at what you have compiled.Ask yourself what you are trying to convey to the reader.What is the most important message from your research? How will your results affect others? Is more research necessary? Write your answers down and keep them where you can see them while writing.Aim for Clarity Your paper should be presented as clearly as possible.
You want your readers to understand your research.You also do not want them to stop reading because the text is too technical.Keep in mind that your published research will be available in academic journals all over the world.This means that people of different languages will read it.Moreover, even with scientists, this could present a language barrier.
According to a recent article, always remember the following points as you write: Clarity: Cleary define terms; avoid nonrelevant information.Simplicity: Keep sentence structure simple and direct.Accuracy: Represent all data and illustrations accurately.“Chemical x had an effect on metabolism.
State the results instead: “Chemical x increased fat metabolism by 20 percent.” All scientific research also provide significance of findings, usually presented as defined “P” values.Be sure to explain these findings using descriptive terms.For example, rather than using the words “ significant effect,” use a more descriptive term, such as “ significant increase.
” For more tips, please also see “Tips and Techniques for Scientific Writing”.In addition, it is very important to have your paper edited by a native English speaking professional editor.There are many editing services available for academic manuscripts and publication support services.Research Paper Structure With the above in mind, you can now focus on structure.Scientific papers are organized into specific sections and each has a goal.
Title : Your title is the most important part of your paper.It draws the reader in and tells them what you are presenting.Moreover, if you think about the titles of papers that you might browse in a day and which papers you actually read, you’ll agree.If the title is not clear and interesting, the reader will not continue reading.
Authors’ names and affiliations are on the title page.Abstract: The abstract is a summary of your research.It is nearly as important as the title because the reader will be able to quickly read through it.In most journals, the abstract can become divided into very short sections to guide the reader through the summaries.In addition, avoid acronyms and citations.Introduction: Include background information on the subject and your objectives here.Materials and Methods: Describe the materials used and include the names and locations of the manufacturers.For any animal studies, include where you obtained the animals and a statement of humane treatment.These should be clearly and succinctly explained so that your methods can be duplicated.
Criteria for inclusion and exclusion in the study and statistical analyses are included.Also, b e careful to not make definitive statements.Your results suggest that something is or is not true.This is true even when your results prove your hypothesis.
Discussion: Discuss what your results mean in this section.Limitations: Discuss any study limitations.Acknowledgements: Acknowledge all contributors.References: All citations in the text must have a corresponding reference.
Check your author guidelines for format protocols.Tables and Figures: In most cases, your tables and figures appear at the end of your paper or in a separate file.The titles (legends) usually become listed after the reference section.Be sure that you define each acronym and abbreviation in each table and figure.Helpful Rules PLOS Computational Biology, authors Mensh and Kording provided 10 helpful tips as follows: Focus on a central contribution.
Write for those who do not know your work.Use the “context-content-conclusion” approach.Summarize your research in the abstract.Explain the importance of your research in the introduction.Explain your results in a logical sequence and support them with figures and tables.
Allocate your time for the most important sections.Some of these rules have been briefly discussed above; however, the study done by the authors does provide detailed explanations on all of them.
Helpful SitesSo, do you follow any additional tips when structuring your research paper? Share them with us in the comments below! We see these words often in written works—the italicized abbreviations that no one seems to be able to define.
They are commonly used in scientific papers.We should ensure that we are consistent in the use and format.Moreover, for Latin or any foreign phrases should we use italics, boldface, or regular font? The following will help.Different Styles First, let’s discuss different style guides.It wasn’t long ago that we had to italicize every word that was not written in English.
Unfortunately, Latin terms are used so often in scientific papers that they become cumbersome.Some style guides have since adopted a “no italics” style for many common terms.Example: “The agreement was declared void ab initio.
” In any writings, especially when using citations and references, “ et al.Example: Rogers in situ, meaning “in its original place.” In biology, this often describes a plant or animal in its native habitat.
Example: The wolf was photographed in situ.in vivo, meaning “taking place inside a living organism.” Both Example: The cancer cells were grown in vitro in a controlled environment.The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) and the American Psychological Association suggest that common abbreviations need not be italicized.” is short for id est and means “in other words.
An easy way to remember them is that “e.” begins with “e” and so does “example;” “i.”( hyperlink for EA article) Example: The family pet (i., the dog) ran around the house and chewed up everything left on the floor (e.” is short for nota bene and means “note well.” Except for use in legal papers, the term has been replaced by just the word “note.” Example: “Note the following information to help you decide.
” is an abbreviation for “ circa,” which translated means “around.” These are used with dates to indicate approximation.
Example: Although not certain, the bones might date back to ca.
“vs” or “v” is an abbreviation of the Latin “ versus,” which means anti, opposed to, or against.It is most often used in legal references but is also often used in scientific writing to compare results or statistical information.“sic” is short for sic erat scriptum and is placed in brackets after quoted text to inform the reader that the text was quoted exactly as it was written.It is often also used to denote misspellings.” is short for curriculum vitae, meaning “course of life.
” This term has replaced the term “resume.” You will at some point be asked for your “c.There are several abbreviations used specifically in references as follows: “Ibid” and “Id.
” are used to save space by not repeating the citation.They indicate that the subsequent reference(s) is from the same source.is the abbreviation of ibidem and means “in the same place;” id.is the abbreviation idem, which means “the same person.
” is short for “ It indicates a reference that is in disagreement with the author’s statements.“ Passim” is not an abbreviation but is Latin for “here and there.
” It indicates that a reference is found in several places in the cited text.CMOS recommends avoiding this term if possible.) Latin Names Scientific writing is somewhat unique because it often mentions species names.This is especially true in biology, ecology, and medicine.Although many style guides state that Latin or other foreign terms need not be italicized after their first mention, species names are the exception.The system of “binomial nomenclature” was developed to identify a species using two names, genus and its epithet.In your writing, the genus should always be initial capped and italicized.
The epithet, referred to as the “species,” is not initial capped but is also always italicized.For example, humans are Homo is the genus and sapiens is the species.There are always several species within a genus.There are often several subspecies within a species.The general rule is to italicize each of these.
For example, the genus Canis lupus refers to the gray wolf but there are 38 subspecies of Canis lupus.In this case, you would italicize the full species names.For example, Canis lupus familiaris refers to the domesticated dog.After the first mention of a species name, the genus can be abbreviated to just the first letter but must still be italicized (e.
You are ready to write and submit your paper to a prestigious journal in your field of study.
The author guidelines do not mention the protocol for Latin and other foreign words and phrases.
How do you find out what you should do? Canva is a design program that began with an idea back in 2007.Founder Melanie Perkins at the University of Western Australia taught students how to use various design programs and felt that some of these programs were difficult to learn and use.Along with her co-founder, Cliff Obrecht, Perkins developed the idea to expand that same technology to create Canva.About the Program Canva was created to help novices and professionals create designs and documents.A large number of templates for layouts allow the users to create their own presentations without having to start from scratch with a “blank page.
” The users can then customize the designs to fit their needs and those of their audience.The available templates for designs range from those for presentations and posters to those for banners and invitations.Tool for Students and Researchers If you are a researcher, you will be required to create graphs and other presentations as part of your research papers or to solicit funding.A user-friendly graphics program such as Canva can be of great help.It can not only help you save time but also create professional and impactful designs.
Students and researchers can explore its many features to create following resources: Research presentations for conferences: You can customize the dimensions based on organizer’s requirements or use custom templates.Event posters or banners: You can create posters and banners of custom dimensions using different design elements.Graphical representation of research: You can use these graphics to depict results or summarize your research for sharing and promotion.High-quality infographics: You can use these to help readers visually understand complex data and detail.Social media posts: You can effectively use these graphics to promote research on social media handles such as Twitter, blogs, and more.
Key Features Canva offers several key features that can help you create high-quality images and graphics in a quick and easy way.Image editing tools: It offers features not only to straighten and crop image but also to add text and add filters or transparency levels.Image editing tools to apply filters and transparency levelsDesign elements: A variety of icons, shapes, illustrations, frames, and photos are available in both paid and free versions to enhance your graphics.Different design elements to enhance your graphicsGraphs and charts: These features can help you compare quantities, track changes or differences, and represent relationships between different elements to depict information in an easy-to-understand way.Templates and grids: With options to use pre-defined or custom templates and grids, you can use your creativity to make your own designs.
Text-editing options offered by CanvaMoreover, Canva also offers online workshops for beginners.For instance, This is Canva: For those who seek a new design medium, this introductory workshop provides instructions on the program’s user-friendly interface and special features.Fonts, Colors, and Images: Provides typographic concepts that include different font types and their uses, how to best use color, and how to use filters to set your personal tone.Background Shapes and Layouts: Teaches structure and design hierarchy and what to use to highlight the main points of your presentation.If you are already a Canva user, we would love to hear about your experience with this exciting tool.
Does it make your work with colleagues more effective? Is it easy to use? Which features do you like most? Please feel free to share your thoughts with us by commenting in the section below.You’ve done your research, you’ve made your bibliography, and you’re ready to write.But after a short time, you find yourself stuck.In-text citations are driving you crazy! Do you really have to list all six authors of the paper you are referencing? What if the first two authors are the same on two different papers? Is it the same regardless of citation style? Read on to remove your confusion about multiple authors in-text citations.Single Author In-text Citations: A Refresher There are three major styles of citation: APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian.
APA is used most often by Education, Psychology, and Sciences,MLA is favored by the Humanities, and Chicago by Business, History, and Fine Arts.As the guidelines for author in-text citations vary slightly among the three, it is important to know the difference.APA requires two types of information: the author’s last name and the date of publication of the work you are citing.If you are citing a direct quote, you must also add the page number.There was no direct causal relationship found between the two events (Burnett, 1995) Burnett (1995) noted that “Subsequent investigation revealed that the two events had no direct causal relationship to one another,” (p.
MLA style requires only the author and page number, as seen in the example below.There is no difference in citation style between a direct quote or a paraphrase.It is still unknown whether caffeine delays the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (Grant, 204).Chicago style requires all three whether you are paraphrasing or not.
A daily serving of broccoli was found to help patients recover more quickly from scurvy (Poblanski 2015, 99-100).Citing Multiple Authors: How should you use “et al.” is a Latin term that means “and others,” and is used for in-text citations of works with multiple authors.” vary slightly among the three major formatting styles.” for works with three or more authors, while Chicago calls for using it with four or more authors.APA format requires that you cite all of the authors at the first mention if there are three, four, or five, and use “et al.
If there are at least six authors, then you may use “et al.In all cases, you should use the last name of the first author followed by “et al.For a paper written by Henderson, Watts, and Kirkland, the MLA citation would look like this: Peanut butter is a rich source of protein (Henderson, et al.
, peanut butter is a rich source of protein (328).For a paper written by Rhyu, Lee, McSnyder, and Xi, the Chicago citation would look like this: Japanese wartime aggression remains a controversial topic in much of East Asia (Rhyu et al.(2012), Japanese wartime aggression remains a controversial topic in much of East Asia (45).For the same paper cited in APA format, the first citation would be as follows: Japanese wartime aggression remains a controversial topic in much of East Asia (Rhyu, Lee, McSnyder, and Xi, 2012).Additional in-text citations of the same paper in APA format would look like this: South Korea’s state history textbook controversy of 2014 is a good example of this debate (Rhyu et al.Same Authors, Same Year, Different Article “Et al.” can create ambiguity in some situations.Take the following example of two publications.“Intellectual Property Law in FTA Negotiations.
” Journal of East Asian Affairs, 13, 14–25.“Multinational Corporate Influence in the WTO.Each citation style solves this problem a little differently.
MLA adds the name of the text in parentheses, while APA and Chicago recommend adding a letter after the year to distinguish between the works.point out that FTA negotiations have gone far beyond the original scope of goods and services trade to incorporate regulatory measures (“Intellectual Property Law in FTA Negotiations,” 20).(2000a) point out that FTA negotiations have gone far beyond the original scope of goods and services trade to incorporate regulatory measures.
Note that in the bibliography of your paper, if you are using APA or Chicago style and you distinguish two papers this way, your bibliography should reflect this.“Intellectual Property Law in FTA Negotiations.” Journal of East Asian Affairs, 13, 14–25.
“Multinational Corporate Influence in the WTO.is Always Plural One last thing to note about “et al.” is that it is plural: it can never refer to only one author.
What should we do in the following situation? We are citing the following two papers in APA format.“Intellectual Property Law in FTA Negotiations.” Journal of East Asian Affairs, 13, 14–25.Pharmaceutical Access and Intellectual Property Law in the WTO.The first in-text citation of these two papers would be as follows.(Lee, Lebowski, & Ryan, 2000) (Lee, Lebowski, Ryan, & Grant, 2000) However, if we write (Lee et al., 2000), we are left with two identical citations.
We cannot use (Lee, Lebowski, & Ryan et al.So, we must write all four names each time we cite it.correctly? What else confuses you about citations? Let us know in the comments! In our previous article, we introduced the definition of plagiarism and instructions on reusing intellectual output from others without committing plagiarism.
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We also provided links to helpful tools to help organize your references (e., EndNote or Reference Manager) and check plagiarism (e., iThenticate and HelioBLAST formerly eTBLAST ) ., iThenticate and HelioBLAST formerly eTBLAST ).
This article offers additional information and examples on paraphrasing, patchwriting, and quoting.More than Just Words Many, if not most, people presume that plagiarism refers to copying others’ words without giving that person credit.They would be correct; however, plagiarism is more than that.It also involves copying another’s “ideas” and data.
Ideas, just as words or data, are “owned” by the person who created them.Taking one’s ideas as your own without proper credit is just as serious as copying his or her words without credit.Plagiarism is a serious professional infraction.The actions taken against the offender can be anything from the retraction of a paper to the loss of research funding.
Paraphrasing In a research paper, references are used throughout to support findings.To help the author,journals provide guidelines for in-text citations and references (e., articles, books, essays) based on the recommended style guide.It is also important to determine whether to quote a reference directly or paraphrase it.
What’s the difference? Again, don’t be pulled into the trap of believing that paraphrasing won’t be considered plagiarism.Quoting is reproducing someone else’s words.Although it is often necessary, quotes should be used sparingly.When necessary, quotes are used to clarify, define something in the text, or support a claim.
Example: The elephant is the largest mammal in the world and can weigh nearly eight tons.It has a “massive body, large ears and a long trunk, which has many uses ranging from using it as a hand to pick up objects, as a horn to trumpet warnings, an arm raised in greeting to a hose for drinking water or bathing.We don’t need to add anything to it and it would be difficult to paraphrase and retain the visual.We have given credit to the source in the parentheses.
Paraphrasing is using your own words to express what someone else has written.As with quotes, paraphrasing must also be cited.Remember to give credit even when paraphrasing.When paraphrasing, ensure that the reference is provided and the main idea/concept is not altered.Example: The elephant is the largest mammal in the world and can weigh nearly eight tons.
Its large floppy ears help to cool its body and protect it from insects.Its proboscis that runs from its head to the ground and is used as a tool and for drinking and bathing.As mentioned, quotations can be quite useful for defining and clarifying an idea, but must be used only when necessary.Paraphrasing is quite useful but it can be difficult to do.
Some good guidelines for paraphrasing are as follows: Ensure that you are completely aware of the message behind the quote.Compose your paraphrase without referring to the quote.Compare your paraphrase with the quote to ensure that the meanings are the same.This takes some time but it will help avoid any accusations of plagiarism.Patchwriting Patchwriting refers to text that is too similar in format and wording to the original quote.
This can be a sign of not fully understanding the message.It is not acceptable to simply use synonyms to replace original words.It is easy to simply copy text off the Internet for just about anything we want to discuss.We copy and paste it into a blank virtual piece of paper.
We cut out superfluous information and add our own words.This is patchwriting, and it is still plagiarism.Example: The pachyderm is the largest mammal in the world.It weighs anywhere from 500 pounds to eight tons.It has a huge body, big ears, and an extended trunk that can pick up objects, sound warnings, greet others, drink water, or bathe.
Would this need to be cited? Yes, this is clearly patchwriting.We merely deleted some words and shortened the sentence, but the original message is the same.Remember, when paraphrasing, do not just substitute synonyms for original words.Write down the “thoughts” behind the original words, not the words themselves.
This will help you avoid the patchwriting trap.You are asked to write a definition of “species.” Can you copy verbatim the definition out of the dictionary without having to cite it? Can you use the definition in Wikipedia without a citation? Why or why not? Citation methods vary by academic discipline. Science and medicine has its own preferred style.
Vancouver referencing and citationstyle is a numbered referencing system that follows the rules established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).
Read on to learn how to cite your sources correctly using this style.Vancouver Referencing Basics You should always use an in-text citation when you are paraphrasing or directly quoting someone else’s work.In Vancouver style referencing and citation, in-text citations are indicated by Arabic numerals (1,2, 3, 4, 5,6,7,8,9).Each reference should be given a unique number that corresponds to the order in which it is cited.When the same work is referenced more than once, use the same number each time.
The placement of the number within the text is up to the individual author or journal.Numbers can be placed within the text, or at the end before or after the period.Just make sure you remain consistent throughout your paper.
Let’s look at several examples, all of which are correct.Recent research (1) indicates that calorie counting is an effective way to maintain long-term weight loss.Recent research 1 indicates that calorie counting is an effective way to maintain long-term weight loss.Recent research indicates that calorie counting is an effective way to maintain long-term weight loss (1).If you use the author’s name in the text, you should still include the citation number.
Blakely (2) notes that previous researchers failed to take age difference into account.When quoting directly from a print source, you should use single quotation marks and include the page number that you are citing.The page number should follow the quote.According to Schumann 4 , ‘long-term weight loss is sustained through a variety of behavior modification techniques (p.’ Note that when you cite different publications by the same author in the same year, each publication should get its own unique reference number.Multiple Author and Multiple-Source Citations If a work has more than one author, and you wish to include the name of the author(s) in the text, you should use the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” For a work written by Simon, Blakely, and Faust, the in-text citation would be as follows: Simon et al.3 found that mice who were fed a diet high in sugar ate more on average than mice who were not.When citing multiple sources in a sentence, include the reference numbers for each source in the citation.
The numbers should be separated by commas with no space in between.Previous research 3,7,10 also confirms that diets high in sugar contribute to a decrease in the production of the ‘satiety’ hormone ghrelin.Consecutive numbers should be separated by a dash.Decreased ghrelin is associated with increased appetite and weight gain (7-9, 14).Keep in mind is that in-text citations do not vary according to the type of publication that is being cited.
No matter whether you are citing a journal article, book, DOI, URL (weblink), report, or other type of publication, the in-text citation is a number.The exception to this is the items that are unpublished (correspondence, interviews, emails, and so on).Here, you should cite the name of the person and date of communication in parentheses in the text.For example: Patient-physician confidentiality plays the important role of building trust and increasing the likelihood a patient will follow their physician’s advice, (Jake Smith, December 13, 2007) which can save lives (8).Do not include this citation in your reference list.
Composing Your Reference List The final page of your work should be titled “References” and list all of your sources in the order they are cited in the text.A complete list of guidelines can be found here.For now, some key items to keep in mind are: Books and journal names should not be italicized or placed in quotation marks.You can find a guide to these abbreviations in the NLM Catalog.
The symbol “&” should never be used between author names.You should only use a capital letter for the first word of a sentence and words that are usually capitalized.Page numbers should be abbreviated to “p”.For example, pages 12-37 would be written as p.In the reference list, “et al” should only be used when there are more than six authors.In this case, list the first three authors followed by “et al”.So, a publication written by Dewey, Cheatham, Howe, Macklin, Ryan, and Choi, would be written in the reference list as “Dewey, Cheatham, Howe et al.”Let’s look at several examples of different types of publications as they should be written on a Vancouver style reference list.
Statistical methods in medical research.The Delphi technique: myths and realities.Electronic Journal Article: Aho M, Irshad B, Ackerman SJ, Lewis M, Leddy R, Pope T, et al.Correlation of sonographic features of invasive ductal mammary carcinoma with age, tumor grade, and hormone-receptor status.21990 Did this article help you with your Vancouver style citations and references? What are some other challenges you have in using citations? Let us know in the comments! In academic writing, grammar and sentence construction are of paramount importance.
While this is also true for informal pieces of writing, grammar mistakes in academic writing can instantly reduce the credibility of the author.Therefore, it is important to ensure that subjects and verbs always agree with each other.The relationship between subjects and verbs lie at the heart of grammatically correct English writing.Subject-verb agreement unifies a sentence and makes it easier to understand.Subject-Verb Agreement in Academic Writing A subject denotes the person or thing that acts, whereas a verb denotes the existence, action or occurrence.
In each of these sentences, it is clear to the reader who performed the action.The subject-verb agreement in each of these sentences is clear and the reader is not left wondering who did the action and what they did.
It becomes clear that subject-verb agreement is essential and even critical in all forms of English writing.Why should you care? Well, for starters, the purpose of writing is to get your message across and this won’t be possible if your reader doesn’t understand what you are trying to say.Secondly, it is always a good idea to practice proper grammar in writing because it makes you credible.Writing Conventions Involving Subject-Verb Agreements The first rule in making your subjects and verbs agree is that the subject has to match with the verb.Since there are many forms of subjects and verbs, this isn’t as simple as it sounds.
In general, if the subject is plural, the verb must be plural as well: Joshua talks.In the past tense, however, verbs do not change: I played.(Plural) The trick to making your subject and verb agree with each other is to identify the quantity of your subject and match the verb to it.
However, there are phrases which are not as easily calculated.For instance: Everyone changes their mind.The previous sentences denote anyone, everybody, everyone, nobody, no one, and someone are always taken as singular and they need to be accompanied by singular verbs.It’s always tempting to think that everybody is a plural subject.
However, it refers to singulars in that it refers to each and every person in a crowd.On the other hand, indefinite pronouns like all or All of the dogs barked.Subject-Verb Agreements in Instances Many nouns seem like plural nouns, and these are instances where anomalies in the English language can be observed.These nouns look plural but actually count as singular nouns.Improving your writing requires understanding these instances to ensure grammatical correctness.
It should be noted that if the members of the noun are not acting in unity as a group, then the noun should be treated as plural and matches with a plural verb.After the movie, viewers exit their seats.The jury are hesitant about the plaintiff.
However, not all such Thousands of voters attend.Either the restaurant or the caf is fine with me.How Subject-Verb Agreements Affect Academic Writing Using these conventions is important for proper English writing.In academic writing, neglecting subject-verb agreements has serious consequences.
These include not getting your message across, confusing your readers, and reducing your credibility.Academic writing is characterized by perfect syntax, sentence structure, and grammar.These things cannot be ignored and you need to pay attention to your subject-verb agreements when writing your manuscript.It’s not as easy as it sounds, but not as hard as it looks either.However, it is essential and even critical for you to master.
Study these rules and you’ll be on your way.Do you get confused when using subject-verb agreements? How difficult or easy do you find to implement these rule? Let us know your thoughts in the comments section below! As an author, your biggest mission is to communicate information to your readers clearly and precisely.Academic writers often use comparisons to highlight the importance of a discovery or finding or to explain the degree to which something has changed.Comparisons can often help facilitate understanding and provide important context, but if written incorrectly, they can leave your audience more confused than they were before.Take a look at the following sentence: I ate more.
than what? I ate more than who? I ate more than when? This sentence is a classic example of an incomplete comparison.This is because it contains only one thing that is being compared: the amount that I ate.It can be fixed by adding more information- a second element of comparison.Complete comparisons must include at least two things or ideas that are being compared.I ate more I ate more I ate more How to Fix it? Let’s look at a few examples of how incomplete comparisons can keep your audience from understanding the significance of your work.
Can you find the error? Even women who negotiated their salaries still earned less.These findings sound important, but the way the sentence is written now, it is hard to understand exactly how big of a problem women face in salary discrimination.Women earned less than who? Less than what? Even women who negotiated their salaries still earned less than men of the same rank and experience who didn’t.By adding more information, we’ve given the reader a way to understand the weight of our findings.
Let’s take another example:The local government promised to spend 15% more on welfare.At first glance, this sentence seems fine.15% more! That’s a lot! But is it? The local government promised to spend 15% more on welfare than it had the previous year.The local government promised to spend 15% more on welfare than on new office supplies.The local government promised to spend 15% more on welfare than the federal government did.
These examples make the problem in the first sentence clear: there isn’t enough information to help us know how much the government promised to spend.The local government promised to spend 15% more, but 15% more than what? The amount of money promised by the local government changes quite a lot between each of these sentences, even though in each case it is spending 15% more.Without the second element, the true meaning of the sentence is lost.Can you find the problem in this sentence? Researchers found that Danish people liked fish more than Japanese people.
Not quite sure where the error is? Here are some hints to help you figure it out.Researchers found that Danish people liked fish more than Japanese people, with 56% of Danes ranking “fish” number 1 on their top ten list of favorite things as compared to just 13% Japanese.Researchers found that Danish people liked fish more than Japanese people did, with the average Dane consuming 1.5 kg of fish per day and the average Japanese citizen consuming just .See the problem? Even though the meaning of the sentence “Researchers found that Danish people liked fish more than Japanese people” might seem obvious, it is, in fact, an incomplete comparison.By omitting the word “did” from the end of the sentence, the reader is unsure if the researchers compared how much Danish people like various things, or if they compared the dietary preferences of Denmark and Japan.This example highlights an important point.Although it might seem like the context makes the comparison easy to understand, it is critical to make sure that a comparative sentence is complete on its own and does not rely on the surrounding context to make its meaning clear.
When you are explaining your findings or making a case for your argument in a paper, a clear comparison allows you to reinforce your meaning and guide the reader to your message.
Fortunately, you can avoid leaving your readers in the dark by checking just two criteria when you write a comparison.First, are there two or more elements in the sentence? And second, does the grammar structure of the sentence make it clear which two elements are being compared? Be specific in the elements you are comparing and make sure that you haven’t omitted any words that are critical to understanding.Now that you know how to avoid this common error, you’re on your way to becoming a better writer and communicating exactly what you want to say! Do incomplete comparisons hold you back from taking your writing to the next level? What tips do you follow to avoid common pitfalls? Share your comments in the below section!High-quality scientific manuscripts should include accurate and rigorous statistical and data analyses, allowing other researchers to reproduce the findings presented.Although most academics strive to collect, analyze, and publish their results in a clear and reliable manner, mistakes may occur at any stage of a study.This can be detrimental not only to the researchers themselves—or to the journals in which the findings have been published—but also to the scientific community as a whole.
This is because it contributes to the so-called “reproducibility crisis”, which involves great amounts of published information that cannot be confirmed by others.Thus, checking the statistical analysis in scientific publications is a crucial part of the peer review process.In addition, this acts as a key step to ensuring and enhancing the quality of academic papers.This process of statistical analysis is called statistical review.Peer Review: A Great Responsibility Peer review is both a privilege and a great responsibility.
A good peer reviewer should assess the importance and originality of a study, correctly evaluate how the collection and analysis of data, and present all the information in a clear and understandable way.This means that referees must recognize the limitations of a particular method or strategy and check the rigorousness of the statistical analyses as well as the use of appropriate controls.Unfortunately, young investigators, however, do not receive any formal training in peer review.Hence, they have to learn through experience and mentoring.In addition, in most cases, referees do not have the experience required to evaluate the statistical methods used in a study so it may be necessary to consult a statistical expert.
If you would like to improve your peer-reviewing skills, here’s a short guide to becoming a good peer reviewer.Importance of a Good Statistical Review Incorrect statistical data slows down scientific progress, wastes research funding, and can result in retractions.A faulty analysis may include errors in measurements, failures during study design, oversight, or even outright fraud.In some cases, it can also be the result of unrealistic expectations on the part of investigators.To solve this problem, the journal Headache recently implemented a reviewing model that includes a careful statistical evaluation.
Since 2009, statistical and methods reporting are checked for reproducibility and validation.The decision letters now include a detailed assessment of the statistical analysis and an evaluation of the design and methods involved in the study.Also, authors must upload relevant reporting guideline checklists.The Annals of Internal Medicine also offers an exhaustive statistical review process, while BMC Medicine relies on subject reviewers to indicate when a statistical review is required.What to Look for During Statistical Review Statistical assessment has become an important part of the editorial process.
Some journals send all manuscripts for statistical review whereas others only do so if the methods are particularly complex or the editor(s) and/or referees have concerns.However, what should evaluators look for during a statistical review? Is the hypothesis clearly stated? Are there any deficiencies in previous research highlighted in the Introduction? Have relevant reporting guidelines (CONSORT, STROBE, etc.) been followed? Have the methods (sampling design, inclusion/exclusion criteria, etc.
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) been described in detail? Would it be possible to reproduce the results of the study? Are the methods appropriate for the study question and study design? Have the authors presented enough information to verify their calculations and conclusions? Does the article mention any missing variables or missing data? Have all the limitations of observational studies been considered? Are any results interpreted beyond the range of the data? Does the study comply with ethical guidelines? Are there any conflicts of interest to consider? Are the Conclusions supported by the data presented in the Results section? Since the reproducibility and validity of the results are crucial, the authors should also be willing to provide the study protocol, statistical codes, and appropriate references for the methods used if required.How important do you think statistical review is? Besides the ones mentioned above, do you think there are any other key points that must be kept in mind during a statistical review? Please share your thoughts in the comments section below.
Ethics are the moral principles that a person must follow, irrespective of the place or time Sheffield Hallam University The Student Room.Ethics are the moral principles that a person must follow, irrespective of the place or time.
Behaving ethically involves doing the right thing at the right time.Research ethics focus on the moral principles that researchers must follow in their respective fields of research Resume Writing Services Rochester Mn Purchase Capstone Project nbsp.Research ethics focus on the moral principles that researchers must follow in their respective fields of research.Why Do Ethics Matter? Ethical decision making in academic research focuses on providing maximum benefits to the participants Resume Writing Services Rochester Mn Purchase Capstone Project nbsp.Why Do Ethics Matter? Ethical decision making in academic research focuses on providing maximum benefits to the participants.Following ethical principles is indeed crucial for maintaining research integrity razestudios.net/term-paper/interdisciplinary-studies.php.
Following ethical principles is indeed crucial for maintaining research integrity.
Research misconduct can have dire consequences.For instance, surgeon Paolo Macchiarini conducted experiments on patients without sound preclinical data.He worked on artificial transplantation of trachea within several patients, which turned out to be pathbreaking in medical history.However, it was all based on lies and fabricated data.Most of the patients who took part in his trial (seven of nine) died.
He altered his published results to make it look as if his trachea transplant work was more successful than it really was.This was a severe consequence of the breach of research ethics.The Nuremberg Code One of the more famous ethical guidelines followed in medical research is the Nuremberg Code.Using the Nuremberg Code shows a commitment to respect research participants.The terrible experiments conducted by the Nazis during the Second World War inspired the formulation of the Nuremberg Code.
These experiments often resulted in severe injury or death.In addition, none of the participants were allowed to decide upon whether or not they would like to participate.Many experiments were not done with any therapeutic aim in mind.The Nuremberg Code addresses all of these things.
Making Ethical Decisions There are some core principles that guide ethical decision making.
Firstly, you must be committed to ethical principles.This means choosing an ethical behavior even if it delays your work or means not getting published quickly in a prestigious journal.Next, you must determine the authenticity of the facts.It is important to evaluate the credibility of the information before taking any decisions regarding the research.Create a list of actions you could take and evaluate the consequences of each one.
Make a final choice that seeks to minimize harm and build trust.Ethical decision making also affects how you report research data and who can be considered an author.Ethics governs not just the treatment provided to the research participants but also to the researchers.Any researcher who contributes substantially to a research project or paper needs to get credit.This holds true even if the researcher is a student.
This is usually done by naming him/her as an author on the final paper.It is best to have this discussion before writing the research paper.That way, everyone involved can have their say.A person should not be included as an author because of his/her position in the institute.For example, the head of a department should only be included as one of the authors of the paper, if he/she did substantial work for the paper.
Researchers need to ensure that they do not wield undue influence over others.A professor may want to recruit his or her students for a study.In this case, he or she must make it clear that participation is voluntary, not compulsory.Moreover, no student must feel pressured to participate.Research Participants Must Be Aware Informed consent is a key principle of research ethics.
It is important that the person who is invited to be part of the research understands both the benefits and the risks involved.They must have all the information that could affect their decision to participate.Each potential research participant should know: Why the study is being done, how long it will last, and what methods will be used Whether they have the right to not participate or to leave the study at any time What are the possible risks or benefits involved, if any What are the limits of confidentiality (circumstances under which their identity might be revealed) Whom they can contact for their queries.Different Research Ethics for Different Disciplines There are general codes of ethics for different disciplines.You can use the Declaration of Helsinki for biomedical research.
There are even ethics guidelines for internet researchers and psychologists.Regardless of the discipline, all ethical guidelines seek to maximize good and minimize ill effects.Research ethics, therefore, require that all participants provide voluntary informed consent.All research must seek to answer questions that will benefit humanity.The risks must be minimized as far as humanly possible.
Is there anything in this checklist that could help you refine your use of ethics? Can you suggest some more rules for research ethics that need to be followed? Share your thoughts with us in the comments below! Academic researchers publish their work in academic journals.However, the number of women publishing research is significantly lesser in comparison to men.It is well known that academic sexism affects female researchers.Women in science are less likely to be hired and are paid less.Female scientists are also given more administrative tasks.
Scientists from minority groups also face similar discrimination.However, there is a need to increase diversity in science.Gender Bias in Peer Review Two recent studies have tried to determine if this bias extends towards peer review.The first relied on data from the American Geophysical Union (AGU).The AGU owns 20 journals which publish about 6,000 papers annually.
The authors used reviewer data from these journals and the AGU member database to determine age and gender of reviewers and authors.The study focused on publications between 2012 and 2015.In the study period, 28% of AGU members were women.Older cohorts within the AGU contain fewer women.About 26% of submitting first authors were female.
However, papers with a female first author were more likely to be accepted than those with a male first author (61% versus 57%).Acceptance rates were not influenced by the gender of the editor or reviewer.
Moreover, only 20% of AGU reviewers were women.
This is less than the percentage of papers with female first authors (27%), female co-authors (23%), or AGU members (28%).In addition, female first authors often recommended female reviewers (21% versus 15%).Similarly, female editors recommended female reviewers more often (22% versus 17% for male editors).Women were more likely to choose to not review an article.About 22% of women declined an invitation to act as a reviewer while 17% of men did the same.
Most often, scientists declined these invitations because they were busy.It is possible that women decline more often as they are more likely to be responsible for administrative duties at work.They also tend to bear the larger part of household responsibilities.Unconscious Bias at Work The second study used data from Frontiers journals.The authors had access to information of about 9,000 editors and 43,000 reviewers.
They also found that women were underrepresented in the peer review process.Each gender had a same-gender preference.This meant that female editors were more likely to suggest female reviewers.Male editors were more likely to suggest male reviewers.Female underrepresentation may be influenced by bias as cultural stereotypes associated logic with men and relational skills with women.
When male and female university staff were asked to choose a lab manager, both groups favored the male applicant.The male applicant was offered a better salary and more mentoring than the female applicant.The assumption that male scientists are better makes it difficult for women to advance in their careers.Before women are hired or promoted they often have to show that they have achieved more than men with identical credentials.This means that female scientists have to do more than their male colleagues to get the same job.
In addition, does this bias also affect how grants are awarded? Examining the NIH R01 grant award information revealed that women are significantly less likely to win these grants.Reviewer critique of female scientists included more praise.This could be a result of the assumption that women are not able to achieve much in science.The reviewers could unconsciously be adjusting how they rate each application based on gender.
Even though they praised women more, they still rewarded them with lesser grants.A third study shows that elite male faculties are less likely to hire women.When young scientists secure faculty positions, they have often been mentored in a high impact lab.Since most of the trainees in these labs tend to be male, this has a ripple effect.Finding Solutions Women and minorities have a more difficult time getting hired or promoted.
These groups are also less likely to win grants, be invited to conferences, or form professional collaborations.All of these activities are critical to career advancement.Being asked to review papers is an indication that your peers value your expertise.Peer reviewing helps develop communication skills.It also builds your professional network.
This is especially important for young researchers.Following the AGU study, there have been efforts to decrease gender bias in peer review.The society now includes a reminder to its editors and authors to make selections that will increase diversity in science.AGU is actively fighting academic sexism by encouraging its team to suggest more women, young scientists, and minorities as reviewers.Academic research can be expected to improve if all researchers are given an equal opportunity.
Other academic journals should also do their part to increase diversity in science.Do you think science has a gender bias problem? How do you think this can be resolved? Let us know your thoughts and experiences in the comments below! In today’s digital age, information storage and data sharing have become a normal part of our lives.We exchange e-mails and messages with friends and colleagues daily irrespective of where they are located.Of course, we expect this to be true for our professional environment as well.This wish to share research data and scientific results with others is the reason why Open Access has become so successful.
Cloud Sharing & Preprints One of the first steps taken by researchers towards sharing their results with their peers was offering downloadable content on their homepages from cloud-based servers.Now, the use of preprint platforms, such as F1000 Research or ArXiv, can be added to this list.These services offer many advantages because they allow the fast dissemination of research.This may also lead to open discussions that help scholars improve their work before being officially submitted to a journal.
Be Open, Please! Many funding agencies and institutions now require the results of scientific studies to be shared with the public as a condition for providing grants or awards.
The NIH, for example, has created policies that require data sharing, and any results generated by studies with direct costs above $500,000 per year must be made open access.Even publishers are now asking authors to deposit some datasets in public platforms.This is to make them available for later access and use by other researchers.These actions promote open discussions that can maximize research productivity.Although data sharing offers many benefits, there are also several risks associated with it.
Researchers must, therefore, be careful with their data-sharing practices.Knowing and understanding the different types of data-sharing licenses can be of great help.The Transformative Power of Data Sharing In an article posted recently to BioRxiv, a group of researchers discusses the impact of data sharing on science.The team used the International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative to study how open sharing impacts data use and the resulting publications.They studied a seven-year period (from 2010 to 2017) and found that scientific results obtained using shared data that cannot be published in high-impact journals is not true.
They also reported a growth in this type of publications and demonstrated that openly shared data can help academics to accelerate science, increasing the scale of scientific studies and enabling the involvement of scientists from different geographical areas and a broader range of disciplines.“These findings suggest the transformative power of data sharing for accelerating science,” the researchers say.Although the article is still a preprint and not yet peer-reviewed, the benefits of data sharing are obvious.Moreover, every day, more scientists are willing to make their results available to the public.TOP Guidelines In response to this data sharing trend—and because of the different needs and practices throughout the research community—many publishers are now introducing new data guidelines for their journals.
It is good to see that major publishing organizations, such as AAAS, Springer Nature, Wiley, the Royal Society, and now Elsevier are working to improve the quality of research by becoming signatories to the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines.Do you share your research data? How do you go about sharing your research data? Share your thoughts with us in the comments below! Before You Accept Once you have verified the legitimacy of the journal, begin by evaluating your qualifications and background for the role of a reviewer.Often the editor has invited you due to your experience in the subject detailed.In a lengthy interdisciplinary manuscript, you can choose to review aspects more aligned with your proficiency.Inform your preference to the editor before you begin to ensure a well thought out peer review process.
If a manuscript outside your field of expertise is mistakenly assigned to you, inform the editor immediately and decline to review.Next, note the deadline for the review submission and ensure your availability within that timeline for a well-reviewed submission.Finally, confirm that there are no conflicts of interest.Potential conflicts of interest include: A competitive research manuscript that outlines similar work to that ongoing in your research lab.The manuscript details a controversial topic that you are personally opposed to If the outcome of your review would be biased due to prior acquaintance with the author(s) If you have recently published or collaborated with the same authors.
Should any of the listed define your circumstance, avoid conflicts of interest by declining the invitation to review.If unsure, discuss your hesitation with the editor prior to deciding on the invitation.Maintain high levels of confidentiality to ensure the privacy of the manuscript’s content.You can seek the assistance of a graduate student or post-doc in the review process, although confidentiality will remain significant.Inform the editor of the support received, and in an open peer review process ensure the assistant co-signs the report with you.
Remain ethical and just, throughout the process and after, do not commercialize or plagiarize the content or ideas.After Acceptance – Review the Articles A researcher may receive several different types of research articles for peer review.These broadly range from original research, case reports, reviews, perspectives, and analyses, to profiles and interviews.Specific reviews for each type of article depend on addressing a few key points, to ensure a complete peer review process.Amongst the variety of guidelines available for each type of article, a few key points of peer review follow: Reviewing Original Research For original research articles, begin by evaluating the clarity of each aim presented.
Ensure that the authors have accurately identified and articulated their question to answer it in context.Analyze if aims, results, and data outlined in the abstract are precise and in a proper flow.Then ensure that the introduction provides sufficient background information to the reader to understand the author’s research process.If the existing evidence is insufficient to support the claims made, propose further experiments for the type of data expected.Furthermore, ensure the claims are original, any previous publications cited and the novelty of current research explained, to begin with.
Follow-up on the conclusion and pay attention to the accuracy of each detail in the manuscript.Reviewing Case Reports Case reports are on clinical studies that present an unusual disease, a new treatment, drug interaction, or a diagnosis.When reviewing case reports, ensure authors include both positive and negative results relevant to patient history, examination, and the investigation.Find out if the authors reveal the impact of the report in medicine, alongside updated reviews of similar cases in the past.Ensure authors have met the specifications of case reports, including the word count limitations and highlighting implications in clinical medicine.
Reviewing Reviews A research review often provides an all-around examination of a particular subject of research.As a peer reviewer, analyze if the article meets the guidelines for publication as a mini-review or long review.Conventionally, research reviews should critically assess works cited, comment on the literature, and offer a personal opinion in the field.Also, find out if the conclusion convenes limitations, future directions, and research pursued in the field of interest.
Check facts for accuracy and consistency, while ensuring maintenance of a structured research flow throughout the review manuscript.
Reviewing perspectives, analyses, profiles, and interviews In a broad overview, perspectives should provide a personal opinion on a research topic in a clear narrative voice.Analyses should provide an in-depth perspective and analysis of a policy, major advance, or historical advent in research.Description of a notable person in a field is a profile, in context of contributions to the field at large.Transcripts of an interview conducted with a researcher, is written-up on interviews, in review for publication in a journal.Key outlines on the types of research articles are in context, the expanded version on reviewing them is available elsewhere.
Submitting the Peer Review Upload the completed peer review online, prior to the deadline, via the journal’s reviewer interface portal.A checkbox for four categories will require your assessment of the manuscript based on context, for acceptance/rejection of publication.The editors will then provide authors your peer review, along with the outcome of their manuscript in the journal of interest.Managing Future Review Requests Writing an honest and accurate review requires skill and expertise in the field, with formal training unavailable to begin with.Consequently, the peer review process is challenging for most early career researchers, who may have to learn by trial and error.
A good review is fair and polite offering constructive criticism while being thoroughly analytical and clear for academic journal publications.Comprehensive and systematic guidelines are available on Wiley and via the Committee on Publication Ethics for beginner peer reviewers of manuscripts.These guidelines further offer support for reviewers, including options for peer review training and mentoring in science.Alternatives to the regular review process, such as transferability of peer review are available for clarification within the guidelines.Clear comprehension of the guidelines may offer a head start to complete an efficient peer review on time, in the future.
Have you received an invitation to peer review for a journal? Do you any tips that worked out successfully for you? Let us know in comments below! Manuscripts provide novel insights that reflect the authenticity and originality of the work when writing and sharing data.To combat plagiarism in manuscripts, CrossCheck (now Similarity Check) has been increasingly used to prevent plagiarism, or reduce the number of duplicate submissions.Similarity Check, powered by iThenticate, evolved as a collaboration between major publishers and CrossRef.It allows editors, publishers, authors, and readers to check submitted articles against a database of millions of other academic journals.This tool allows people to detect plagiarism using an automated text similarity checker.
Features of Similarity Check After an article is uploaded, Similarity Check scans the manuscript for similarities to previously published content.It compares full-text manuscripts against more than 38 million articles and more than 20 billion web pages.You can check here if your journal uploads its information.Of course, some writing will be very similar to various other articles.Hence, results are reviewed to determine the nature of the duplicated text.
Nevertheless, several organizations use this software, including Springer, BiomedCentral, Adis, Birkhauser, and Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.Meanwhile, other organizations, like the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), require all papers for proceedings and conferences be screened via a plagiarism detection process.Volunteers or staff of various organizations then review the reports generated by Similarity Check to determine the nature of the similarity and if any action is warranted.A Quick User’s Guide Staff members of various publishing organizations and publications volunteers (e.) upload new manuscripts into the database.This can either be done manually or might require some help from the publications volunteer.
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When a publication reaches a threshold, such as 30% (as recommended by the IEEE), the person who has uploaded the manuscript is notified electronically.This threshold can be modified to any amount and is linked to an email alert system.
A report is generated that highlights similarities, which must be carefully reviewed to discern actual plagiarism from coincidental writing 30 Oct 2017 - Qualified Professional Academic Help. Starting at $7.98 per page. Get DISCOUNT Now! Purchase Capstone Project Online - Best in UK, Resume Writing Services Rochester Mn..A report is generated that highlights similarities, which must be carefully reviewed to discern actual plagiarism from coincidental writing.
The report shows the combined or total score of individual similarities.These reports can be modified based on similarity, content tracking, or largest matches Call for admission NATIONAL Technical Engineering College, the school of academic distinction, popularly known and called NATECO always 100% in City & Guilds and H.M.I. Tel 26805, Accra We buy, sell, repair and install electric motors, generators, refrigerators, airconditioners, Radio/TV sets and everything electric..These reports can be modified based on similarity, content tracking, or largest matches.Text is highlighted in a color and indicated by a number The original source is then indicated on a side panel and is colored and numbered to match the in-text coding The percentage of similarity of the article to an individual source is indicated for each article or source that shares common language The summation of individual article similarity scores is presented An individual must review this report and consider several variables, such as the extent of the similarity, the originality of the copied material (e.
, standard or routine language), the context of the similar material, and the attribution to author or source.When considering the individual similarity scores of each source, Springer recommends that a score of 1-5% requires no checking, >10% requires quick checking, and >20% requires thorough checking razestudios.net/homework/education.php.When considering the individual similarity scores of each source, Springer recommends that a score of 1-5% requires no checking, >10% requires quick checking, and >20% requires thorough checking.Important Considerations Given the nature of publishing and academic writing, duplicated text might become unnecessarily flagged for several reasons.These can include when updating a systematic review, mentioning contributions of an author, self-citation, or “patch writing” that involves several small segments of routine language In some instances, cultures vary on the nature of plagiarism .
Some communities may believe that copying is a sign of respect while others value individuality or uniqueness.Furthermore, senior authors may not have been aware of a junior author’s missteps.Alternatively, authors may have granted permission to duplicate or reuse the text.Ultimately, the integrity of a scientist is paramount to ensure that the research work is perceived with trust.
Using Similarity Check’s report, an author can review what others are writing and ensure that his or her text does not inadvertently repeat the work of another author.
As science progresses and becomes more competitive, the writing of scientists will come under greater scrutiny.Have you used Similarity Check? How was your experience with this plagiarism tool? Share your thoughts in the comments below! Academic publishing relies on peer review to ensure research quality.Is there bias in peer review? And if so, how does it affect academic research? A recent study examined the peer review process using simulations.Professor Justin Esarey, the author of the study, set up many simulations based on various peer review processes.
In each case, he assumed that there would be three peer reviewers.Studying the Peer Review Process In the first simulation, he assumed an agreement among all peer reviewers and the editor for a paper accepted for publication.Then in the second, he assumed that if the majority of reviewers agreed that the paper should be accepted then it would be published.In the third, he assumed that the majority had to include the editor’s vote.Finally, there was a model where the editor made a decision based on the average reviewer report.
In this model, the editor ignored the peer reviewers’ votes to accept or reject the paper.Esarey did these four simulations twice.The first time, he used the conditions listed above.The second time he assumed that the editor would reject some papers without sending them to reviewers.In this second round of simulations, the editor rejected any paper whose quality was lower than the median paper in the population.
The simulation also included readers of the journal.How would readers rank the papers accepted for publication in each case? He did a simulation involving 50,000 papers and 500 journal readers.He set the paper acceptance rate at 10%.Esarey then used a simulation to work out how readers would rate the published papers.In every case, readers ranked the papers as being in the 80 th percentile.
About 12% of papers that were not rejected by an editor and that the majority of reviewers agreed should be published were viewed as being of poor quality by readers.The Value of Editorial Intervention Esarey’s study highlights the need for good editors.He found that the system that published papers of the highest quality used peer review but the final decision was left to the editor.The peer review reports summarized the strengths and weaknesses of the paper.Moreover, they did not include a recommendation for accepting or rejecting the manuscript.
Under these conditions, only 6% of readers felt that papers in the journal were in the 65 th percentile.If editors rejected half the papers before sending the rest to peer review, only 1% of readers felt the papers were in the 65 th percentile.The best system is similar to ones used by journals where reviewers are asked to submit a qualitative review of the paper.In this case, reviewers do not share their opinion on the publication of the paper.In the simulations, Esarey found that peer review led to the acceptance of better papers.
This shows that peer review has more value than randomly choosing which papers to publish.Papers of the highest quality became most likely for publication.The decision to publish a paper in the 80 th percentile largely depended on luck.Publishing papers of this quality had a likelihood similar to a coin toss.This was also true for papers in the 85 th percentile where the editor decided to reject some manuscripts without peer review.
Other Forms of Bias There are other forms of bias that can affect peer review.Women and minorities tend to have more difficulty in funding, publication, or promotion.Andreas Neef published a study showing women were underrepresented as editors, reviewers, and authors.This underrepresentation remained even after making adjustments for the lower participation of women in science generally.The study involved 9,000 editors and 43,000 reviewers from Frontiers journals.
Based on current trends, it would take until 2027 for female authors to become no longer underrepresented.Similarly, it would take until 2034 and 2042 before women became no longer underrepresented among reviewers and editors.Additionally, changing this situation requires helping people to identify and work against their biases.It is undeniable that peer review adds value to academic publishing.
This makes it important to reduce bias in peer review.In order to effectively judge research quality, peer review reports should not include the reviewer’s opinion on acceptance or rejection of the paper.The editor should take this final decision and judge academic research by virtue of its merits.For this reason, anti-bias training becomes essential.
Making these changes should ensure the publication of only the best research.
Have you encountered bias during a peer review? Share your thoughts with us in the comments below! Publishing an article in a science journal earns its authors recognition and respect.This is because, traditionally, the meaning of an author reflected someone making a substantial contribution to the research project.However, in recent times, the meaning of an author, especially co-author, is rapidly changing.Should it still be understood to represent the complex work and practice of doing science? The ethical basis of academic authorship appears threatened by hyper-competition and the digital revolution in scientific publishing made possible by the Internet.
Goodbye, Good Scientific Practice The culture of journal authorship varies between major fields.Scientists tend to publish short articles, more than once per year in journals, with multiple authors.By contrast, scholars in the humanities publish less frequently, either alone or with one co-author, in either books or journals.Yet, the pressure to publish is felt across academia.So, looking at trends in authorship is obviously important.
Recently, Schmidt and his two co-authors published a detailed report online.They used Scopus records, from 2010-2016, to investigate co-authorship for 27 fields.In it, they looked at the trends in number of authors per article by focusing on the 20 highest performing authors in each field.The results and conclusions of this study may concern some.To others, it may simply reflect the inevitable changes and differences in scientific working styles.
Main Findings The analysis by Schmidt et al.shows that over the 6-year period, there has generally been a slight increase in the number of authors per article.Two disciplines showed a zero increase (Psychology and the Arts & Humanities), one actually decreased, and 23 more fields had increases of 0.However, one field had an incredible increase of 57.
This outstanding field is Physics and Astronomy.It had a mean number of authors per article of 1268.However, this was not because of the influence of one or two papers with many authors.
This field is surely complex, and some experiments require many contributors, each performing a crucial task.But is this really being an author? Those writing the 5154-word paper contributed just 1.Ranked next was Medicine and Biochemistry, Genetics, and Molecular Biology.Both fields had papers with more than 1000 authors on it (respective maximum values of 1193 and 1269).Among the 20 most productive authors in Medicine, half had “authored” more than 200 papers each over the 6 years.The other 10 authors published more than 400 articles under their name.
also report a very noteworthy statistic.For Physics and Astronomy and Medicine, the 20 most productive scientists in each field “authored”, on average, 59.5 articles per year over their entire career.
That amounts to almost 4–5 papers published per month! Key Conclusions The sheer number of authors in Physics and Astronomy is mind numbing.In this field, the definition of academic authorship has clearly changed.It no longer follows the idea of a substantial and not merely technical contribution, or of being able to defend the paper as your own.It seems almost pointless to list so many authors, as it makes a mockery of authorship.Looking at the issue from a different perspective, the scale of the experiments is also getting larger and more expensive as this field advances (e.
A longer author sequence would thus be unavoidable.In other fields, notably Medicine and Biochemistry, Genetics, and Molecular Biology, authorship is clearly on the rise.
It matters for reputation, which in turn matters for funding and for the prestige of the institution where the author works.
Moreover, it now seems much easier than before to be a co-author on a paper.This dilution of traditional academic authorship means that key guidelines for journal authorship are no being longer respected (e.Science as a Business Hyper-authorship is not altogether new.
By 1985, the “apparent champion” medical paper had 160 authors listed on it.However, this published paper appeared in a Japanese-language journal (as pointed out in a letter by Dr.Newman in the British Medical Journal).At that time, 12 authors of a single English-language medical article was thought to be the maximum.argue that the most plausible explanation for this trend in academic authorship is the rise of “factory science”.The product is knowledge, packaged in a publication.The workers are the post-docs and PhD students, the bulk of the researchers.The lab head is usually tenured and runs the show.Earlier, the lab head would forego authorship; however, nowadays the price in missed funds and prestige is perhaps too great.
The factory is owned by the university and strives to increase the quantity of its knowledge product (which also serves as a sales currency).The price, if too rushed, is its quality.One well-known way to increase productivity is to divide the scientific labor required into very small, specialized tasks.This is what empirical physicists and biomedical scientists seem to be doing.The Internet makes it easier for people from around the world to collaborate on a project.
The big ethical question is should these singular small tasks still merit being a co-author? In the humanities fields, factory science is harder to pull off.The subject matter is unlike the pure and applied sciences.Here, the medieval guild system prevails, where the author is still involved in most aspects of making the product.He or she can work alone, or when needed has very few helpers (apprentices).Looking Ahead Typically, the first author of a scientific journal article means that you have made the greatest contribution.Following that was the co-author sequence corresponding to one’s declining contribution.Successful academic authorship is needed for research funding and career advancement.However, this is done primarily on a competitive basis that relies heavily on bibliometrics (and possibly altmetrics).Unless this evaluation system changes, the incentives to see your name as the co-author of a paper, by whatever means, will only get stronger.
We can expect the meaning of authorship to become watered down in the process.It can be difficult for editors to find reviewers for articles.
Many scientists publish more articles than they review.This creates a burden on those who review many papers.The founders of Academic Karma believe that scientists should get credit for peer review.They have created an open data platform for open peer review.This peer review organization wants to change the current imbalance in peer reviewing.
What Is Academic Karma? Academic Karma is a peer review network.All of Preprints’ papers are visible on Academic Karma.The peer review of associated articles is open.A reviewer can choose to not include their names if they feel that there might be backlash.In order to review a paper, a researcher must have an ORCID profile as this is a verification step.
Academic Karma encourages researchers to do more peer review.The platform allows scientists to review manuscripts for any journal.When the review is complete, they can directly submit it to the journal.For every paper a researcher reviews, they get 50 karma.
This 50 karma comes from the accounts of the paper’s authors.
The karma balance for a researcher becomes an indication of how many reviews they have done versus how many papers they have had reviewed.Researchers have used Academic Karma to review papers for Gigascience, Nature.Editors can also use the platform to manage open peer review for their papers.Authors can use it to invite an editor to manage the review of their article.This feature allows authors to connect with editors of top journals.
The editors may be able to recommend the best place to publish their paper.Authors can also crowdsource peer review of their work.How Does Academic Karma Work? The platform uses data from ORCID to determine a user’s karma over the last five years.Users can also upload their reviewing history.Academic Karma then showcases the expertise of its members.
They are encouraged to indicate their willingness to review articles.The platform also provides tools to help editors find and invite reviewers.Once the paper is published it is added to the manuscripts page.Lachlan Coin and Louis Stowasser co-founded Academic Karma.Their aim is to make peer review cheaper, faster, and more transparent.
They have been tracking the speed of peer review on the platform.On average, an Academic Karma review takes 9 days.Coin and Stowasser have decided to focus on using the platform to open peer review preprints for free.Lachlan Coin has argued that open peer review removes the false idea that a published paper is perfect.Academic Karma, the University of Queensland, Imperial College London, the Australian National University, and Cambridge University have launched a pilot peer review network.
Any researcher at these universities can use this network to get peer review for their work on arXiv or bioRxiv.The system creates a file that has the open peer review and a summary of the strengths and limitations of the paper.This document can be submitted with the article to an open access journal.Academic Karma and the Community Initially, Academic Karma caused some controversy.It used ORCID data to create automatic profiles for scientists.
This was done without their knowledge and these profiles were often incomplete.This means that a person who is an active reviewer may have less karma than they should.It also meant that researchers had Academic Karma profiles even if they didn’t want one.Academic Karma is one more push towards open data.
In order to benefit from Academic Karma, the data in an article must be freely available.It also understands the importance of giving credit for peer review.The platform hopes to encourage each researcher to do their fair share of peer review.The most recent thrust of Academic Karma is to try to build a global peer review network that will help reduce the unfair burden on a limited number of peer reviewers.Have you tried out Academic Karma and their platform? Do you think that this platform would promote researchers to begin reviewing more research articles? Do you let us your thoughts in the comments! Most of the work published today is interdisciplinary and international, involving authors from different research areas and locations.
In recent years, the cloud-based authoring tool, Overleaf has made sharing and publishing documents in an international environment much easier and effective.The online platform allows real-time collaboration between different authors of a file and automatically generates a structured and fully typeset output in the background as they type.This means that authors can directly see a preview of their projects while they are working on them.Overleaf LaTeX can be used to create a range of documents including journal articles, slides, books, conference posters, and CVs.Collaborative Writing With this online tool, academics can collaboratively write and/or edit documents in Rich Text or LaTeX anywhere, anytime.
The service allows them to share and invite colleagues to co-author, check, edit, or comment on a file without having to pass a manuscript around or deal with several versions of a document.It also minimizes errors and helps prevent long email discussions.A basic version of Overleaf, which offers a storage space of up to 1GB and allows up to 60 files per project, can be used for free.However, if users require more storage or additional features, they can purchase the Pro or Pro + Teach versions.The service offers several benefits to authors, institutions, and publishers.
Overleaf for Authors Thanks to its many interesting features, many institutions offer the Pro version to their members for free.Moreover, some publishers have partnered with Overleaf to simplify the submission process.For a number of journals, authors can use the readily available Overleaf LaTeX templates and submit directly from Overleaf to the journal’s editorial office.Some of the main features of the online tool are intended to help authors write, edit, and submit documents faster and more efficiently.
The following list showcases the important features of Overleaf: You can start working and collaborating online right away without having to install a software program.
You can see and edit your projects—or check the changes made by your colleagues—in real time from remote locations.You can send a sharable secret link (assigned to every project) to your colleagues to start a collaboration.Only authorized users can have access to the corresponding file.All the changes made by you or your co-authors are synchronized.
You can communicate with your co-authors by adding comments and/or notes to the files.You can edit in Rich Text or LaTeX and easily switch between the two modes.You can quickly rectify any error based on the alerts received.
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You can use various templates and features to create tables, prepare great presentations, draft journal manuscripts, compile theses, or create bibliographies.You can create protected projects for enhanced privacy with the Pro version.
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You can use journal-provided manuscript templates and make direct submissions to journals from several publishers or to repositories instantly through an integrated feature.You can incorporate reference managers such as Mendeley or Zotero when drafting your manuscripts.Overleaf has launched a new LaTeX validation service, the details of which are available here 13 Oct 2017 - Qualified Professional Academic Help. Starting at $7.98 per page. Get DISCOUNT Now! Purchase Thesis Statement Online - Best in USA, Professional Writing Services Dallas..Overleaf has launched a new LaTeX validation service, the details of which are available here.Using Overleaf Do you think that Overleaf could help you communicate your research better? Are you interested in learning more about this service? In the next part of this series, we will provide a user guide with information on how to sign up and work with different templates.
You can also find more information in this short introductory video.If you are already an Overleaf user, we would love to hear about your experience with this exciting tool.Does it make your work with colleagues more effective? Is it easy to use? Which features do you like most? Please feel free to share your thoughts with us by commenting in the section below.John McCarthy first coined the term “artificial intelligence” (AI) in 1956 at a conference in Dartmouth.AI means that machines can mirror the functions of the human brain in various applications such as problem-solving in Mathematics.
Since then, interest in AI has grown exponentially over the years.Recently, Apple published an AI paper of its own, describing improvements in image recognition training through the use of computer-generated images in place of real-world images.Machine learning is a branch of AI that is concerned with taking large bodies of data and using it to train software for purposes of identification.Machine learning is thought to be a predecessor, or a pre-requisite, to AI.There are concerns about the rise of AI, but there are clear benefits to its use.
The bottom line is, should we trust it? Artificial Intelligence: Should We Trust It? AI is utilized by industries other than academic publishing, such as in generating traffic to websites by using Big Data and Natural Language Processing.Neural networks form a sub-area of AI, concerned with replicating the way the human mind works.Scientists have reasoned that AI will lead to innovations, discoveries, and scientific advancements.There are several advantages to AI, such as taking on tasks that are too complex for the human mind; completing tasks rapidly compared to humans; reduce errors and defects, and to discover trends and meanings in data.AI has the capacity to make life simpler, easier, and more advanced.
Impact of AI on Academic Publishing Academic publishing is affected by the rise of AI, and here’s why.5 million scientific articles were published in 2014 across 28 journals.It should also be noted that these statistics apply to articles published in English alone.With the wealth of journal articles being published, AI can be a valuable asset for publishers.
Using AI, fraudulent data can be detected and plagiarism can be averted as well.AI can decide whether a paper is fit for publication or not.AI is set to disrupt the scientific community—and that’s a good thing, according to the World Economic Forum.Academic literature has become a significant bottleneck.For instance, more than 70,000 papers have been published on the p53 protein alone.
Academics struggle to keep up, while the general public simply can’t.AI can help change the way that published articles are perceived and received, by the general public.A new AI startup, , aims to provide access to and contextualize published research.Yet another example of science mining is Semantic Scholar, which is a search engine created by the Institute for Artificial Intelligence.Benefits for Researchers and Publishers Like it or not, AI can and will benefit the scientific community.
It can significantly improve the way that research is conducted and published.While the thought of a machine dictating human actions and deciding on scientific matters may be scary for some, AI has its benefits: Reveal trends that are essential for research: Papers can be distilled according to content rather than title, allowing researchers to identify trends.Identify new peer reviewers: AI can identify a roster of potential peer reviewers from online sources that journal editors may not have considered.Fight plagiarism: Using Natural Language Processing, AI can forego the traditional algorithms for detecting plagiarism in favor of software that can identify whole sentences or paragraphs that have been reworded.
Identify funding sources: According to Elsevier, AI can make it easier for sponsors to find the output of research that they have sponsored.
Identify flawed reporting and statistics: AI can identify whether an important component of research is missing and whether the statistics applied were flawed.Finally, it can detect whether data was modified in order to arrive at the desired outcome.Concerns and Solutions While there are numerous benefits to AI, notable personalities such as Stephen Hawking, Bill Gates, and Elon Musk have warned against the rise of AI.Hawking, in particular, stated that AI will be “either the best or the worst thing, ever to happen to humanity.After all, the World Economic Forum listed 9 ethical concerns about AI.One concern is the loss of jobs as machines take over the jobs that people do today.However, the Forum stated that transitioning to a lifestyle focused more on quality family time may, actually, be more humane.The Forum also stated that machine learning can “nudge society towards more beneficial behavior”.Neural networks can also evolve to become a catalyst for positive change.
AI is the future, and embracing it is the only way to ensure that fears about it are minimized.In terms of academic publishing, AI can pave the way for a more cohesive, contextualized, and accessible repository of information.Through AI, publishers can optimize processes to ensure that all articles are up to par.What are your thoughts on AI in scientific publishing? Do let us know in the comments below.Avoiding sugar in the diet is presently a standard practice.
In fact, its lifelong intake has been restricted due to its role in causing several diseases.However, there are some effects of sucrose withheld by the scientists, which have come out into open after about 50 years. Recent studies published in JAMA internal medicine, surprisingly show the role of sugar or sucrose in causing heart disease, that was downplayed in the 1960s.Early warning signals of sugar-based coronary heart disease (CHD) risk emerged in 1950s research, subsequently repressed by the International Sugar Research Foundation (ISRF).Instead, an ISRF sponsored research project in 1965 misleadingly delineated fat and cholesterol as the dietary cause of CHD.
The misrepresentative literature review published in the highly influential New England Journal of Medicine conversely softened the role of sucrose.The historical publication and aftermath highlight the need for restrictions on industry-funded research on food items, due to conflicting interests associated.Effects of Sucrose Withheld: Supporting Facts & Controversy Researchers from the University of California, San Francisco recently assessed the SRF-funded animal research on sucrose’s role in cardiovascular health.This study initially backed another study by the University of Birmingham researchers, observing the effects of sucrose in rodents.However, when the outcome of two-separate studies demonstrated sucrose consumption linked heart disease and bladder cancer, the results went unpublished.
ISRF withheld the findings of a research, whose results were withheld for about 50 years.From the research, it was known that rats which fed on a high-sugar diet, had higher levels of a type of fat known as triglycerides in the blood.The outcome of the historic study could have cast a doubt on the correlation between elevated triglycerides and heart disease.Furthermore, the SRF stopped funding the project named Project 259, that studied the impact of sucrose on the rat intestinal tract.
Additional outcomes of Project 259 suggested the role of gut bacteria in mediating sugar’s adverse cardiovascular effect.Another research, in 1969, further linked the influence of sucrose in increasing bladder cancer risk.Results found a possible link between increased sugar consumption and bladder cancer risk.But due to the policies of self-preservation, this led to study termination instead of publication.Analyzing the Aftermath On the perspective published in PLOS Biology, researchers believe outcomes of the animal study had translational effects on human health.
Responsible disclosure of the accurate results earlier would have clarified two key points of the research on: The risk of CHD is greater for sucrose than starch Sucrose is a potential carcinogen associated with elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase (an enzyme connected with bladder cancer in humans).At present, therefore, the research focus continues to scrutinize the following findings: Differential effects of sucrose and starch digestion by gut microbiota and the resulting blood lipid levels The quality of carbohydrates and its role on beta-glucuronidase-based cancer activity.Reaching a Consensus The recently published studies on JAMA and PLOS, contribute to an ongoing body of literature documenting industrial manipulation of science.Since ages, industries sought to provide research funding and hence, regulate commercially-favorable rial mediation of research clearly creates conflict, since it has no scientific basis other than brand advocacy.Research is rife with such examples, including the tobacco industry influence, pharmaceuticals and the more recent interpretations of climate change.
History has repeatedly demonstrated how such collaborations have suppressed emerging scientific evidence.This evidence, if known, at the correct time, could have prevented the detriment of human health and welfare.As a result, at present, industry sponsorship on nutrition research continues to receive increased scrutiny.To begin with, clearly disclosing conflicts of interest in such research collaborations to maintain transparency, or avoiding collaborations altogether is recommended.Current debates on the health impacts of sugar have in this way culminated over decades of scientific evidence tampering.
The ongoing sucrose conflict underlies a variety of widespread disease than those outlined, creating different conflicts and methods of intervention.Governments have taken the initiative to impose a two-tier tax levy on sugary beverages to attenuate sucrose impact on childhood obesity.A professor of public health and policy at the Liverpool University recommends 10 portions of fruit and vegetables daily.Added refined sugar in tinned fruit is a problem, as is hidden sugar in processed foods, that we often consume without realization.
Policymaking committees can reform guidelines to promote mechanistic/animal studies before food industry-industry funded studies that investigate sugar’s role in disease.
Ethics of Industry-Funded Research & Open Access Recent findings of the sucrose research highlight several ethical conflicts, including failure to disclose conflicts of interest and scientific manipulation.But nobody had the clue that sucrose could play any role in CHD or CVD.The investigations on dietary factors began when American men displayed disproportionately high rates of CHD mortality.The preliminary outcomes focused on reducing total fat, dietary cholesterol and saturated fat, contrary to findings on sucrose now known.The International Sugar Research Foundation (ISRF) or the Sugar Association (as it is presently known) denied any correlation between the intake of added sugars and CVD.
In response to recent allegations, the ISRF issued a press release dismissing the controversial study as an old, non-systematic perspective.They undermined past events as an assumption, simultaneously highlighting that known critics of the industry conducted the past research.They further denied allegations of termination of the study, stating that none of them ended due to the potential findings denoted.This historical account demonstrates the importance of disclosing industrial efforts, financial support or conflicts of interest to minimize research discrepancies.In science, reviews shape policy debates, federal funding priorities and subsequent investigations.
This news also suggests that the research results and reviews must be made open so that the whole world can understand the results and the effects they have on their lives.What is your view on effects of industrial mediation affecting the research findings? Do you know about any other incident when the research findings have been modified due to industry mediation? Please share your thoughts with us in the comments section below.Diversity and inclusion are fundamental to scientific advancement.In line with this vision, the Wellcome Trust has made diversity and inclusion (D&I) one of its six priority areas.As one of the world’s largest biomedical research charities, the Wellcome Trust hopes to change the existing male-dominated research culture.
The initiative was described as “hugely significant” by the deputy pro vice-chancellor for equality and diversity at the University of Leicester.It is expected that other research funders will follow the suit.However, this is not the first instance where a research funder included diversity terms to its grants.In 2011, Department of Health & Research made silver-award of the Athena SWAN Charter one of the eligibility criteria for funding.Athena SWAN, which encourages gender equality in the sciences, had soaring applications after the funding requirements changed.
Similarly, Research Councils UK encouraged an inclusive framework.The Wellcome Trust will closely examine options and broader impact of its decision on research funding for effective implementation.Plan of Action The aim of the initiative is to prevent the number of people dropping out of research careers because of various barriers.Scientific progress thrives on diverse ideas and thus faces a huge setback in the current funding environment.The Wellcome Trust’s plan of action consists of three key strategies: Making UK science more inclusive Engaging a wider range of people Leading by exampleAccordingly, the Trust defines ‘diversity’ as an assortment of personalities, ways of thinking, and the categories protected by UK law.
Inclusion intends to make adjustments for disabled applicants and accommodate special needs.This will introduce methods to quantify and replicate good practices in diversity and inclusion, from an objective standpoint.This includes the launch of a network called EDIS (Equality, Diversity and Inclusion in Science and Health Research).With the Francis Crick Institute and GlaxoSmithKline, the network aims to inspire and encourage an inclusive scientific community.The strategy will build upon the work of the Wellcome Collection and its accessibility to diverse audiences.
The trust will also collaborate with BBC Children in Need and the Brilliant Club to inspire the next-generation.The focus is to spark scientific curiosity early on in young people to develop them as future scientists.Leading by example, Wellcome Trust hopes to raise awareness of inherent bias.Initially, it is important to change non-inclusive recruitment process and the limited investment in people.Statistically, 44% of senior lecturers in bioscience are women, but only 16% of them make it to professors.
Furthermore, students opting for STEM after the age of 16 represent the same ethnic/social group as they did 20 years ago.The Next Step A strong steering team focused on Diversity & Inclusion (D&I) is required to create an inclusive research culture.The next step is to form a team to reinforce recommendations of the Diversity in Grant Awarding and Recruitment report.The established steering group of D&I experts will give strategic advice to shape Wellcome’s projected work.Specifically, the group includes 12 external members.
Accordingly, the steering group will meet thrice a year, to focus primarily on implementing the listed D&I plans.The group will specifically help shape annual priorities to meet the projected agenda, discuss complexities, and highlight current opportunities.On the Same Note In the spirit of inclusion, the Trust cofounded EDIS and also published a review detailing benefits of diversity in biomedical research.This also includes the pilot training process to promote awareness of unconscious bias for Wellcome employees.The steering group had its first meeting on 2 November, to elect a Chair and develop the plan of action.
The D&I group will share feedback on the plan of action in the next few months.The group hopes to start early on its proposed course of action and persevere through to implement core changes.To recap, the reader can access the following sites recommended for further information, Wellcome-commissioned research summary by the Bridge group, andDo you also think this move for diversity and inclusion will change the funding landscape and how? Share your thoughts in the comments section below.In early October, two scientists shared a software program that detects incorrect gene sequences in already published research experiments.
Using the program, the duo identified experimental flaws in more than 60 papers within cancer research alone.
Scientists Jennifer Byrne and Cyril Labb combined their expertise in cancer-research and computer-science, to introduce the software “Seek & Blastn”.The program is presently at its trial phase, available online to fellow researchers for testing and improving it.The next step is to commercialize and propose the software to publishers and journal editors.On scrutiny, nucleotide sequences reported in the papers were inaccurate, resulting in the retraction of two papers.
Two more papers faced retraction by the 21 st November.The erroneous trend appeared on 25 other papers, prompting Byrne and Labb to develop and implement Seek & Blastn tool.In brief, nucleotide sequences extracted from any given paper uploaded to the software will undergo fact-based verification.Technically, the program will crosscheck extracted nucleotide sequences against a public database called Nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search tool (BLAST).If a sequence described to target a human gene is a mismatch to the Blastn database, the error is flagged.
Conversely, the semi-automated program can also detect sequences described as non-targeting, with a Blastn database match.Although limited to human sequences alone at present, the pair hopes to include sequence verification for other species as well.Program Design In September, the researchers presented early results of their program to the International Congress on Peer Review and Scientific Publication.The conference proceedings outlined how the program could enhance scientific quality and credibility.By design, the “seek & blastn” semiautomated tool extracts gene identifiers and nucleotide sequences (15-90 bases) using entity recognition techniques.
Using finite-machines, the sentence containing each sequence is analysed automatically, to assign a claimed status compared with the blastn analysis.Google Scholar enables further assessment with any status claimed within literature.To begin with, the study identified a collection of highly similar cancer research publications (CorpusP).The study further included an additional set of 154 unknown studies (CorpusU).Preliminary Outcomes According to the study, 48 of 48 (100%) CorpusP and 111 of 154 (73%) CorpusU publications had nucleotide sequences extracted using Seek and Blastn.
The tool flagged incorrect nucleotide sequences in 38 of 48 (79%) CorpusP studies.Furthermore, the tool indicated that predictions for nontargeting sequences were incorrect compared to targeting sequences.Of the CorpusU studies, the tool flagged 30 of 154 (19%) nucleotide sequences as incorrect.Although the percentage of anomalies was small, it demonstrated substantial error for a fact-checking program nevertheless.As a result, papers put through the software also require additional manual checking at present.
The program also risks complications in targeting sequence analysis, when gene identifier variations are at play.Presently, Seek & Blastn is therefore only a pilot program that seeks peer-review through follow-up analyses in the Life Sciences.Overview of Scientific Credibility Despite its preliminary status, the software has highlighted some core problems within the existing publications.For instance, verified sequence mismatches in publications at present can thus invalidate the results and conclusions of the paper overall.Incorrect sequence identification may indicate that results in the paper are not a true reflection of the original experiments conducted.
The pair of scientists also published a study earlier in 2016, reporting 48 problematic papers.Evidently, the papers similarly described a single gene knockdown protocol in cancer cell lines, though the authors did not perform it.In total, these two researchers have identified incorrect sequences in over 90 published papers.Such error has serious implications to the validity of ongoing research and future reproducibility of methods.Statistician David Allison believes on using ‘Seek & Blastn’ to promote good scientific practice rather than to “catch people out”.
The expectation is that similar tools will enable error rate quantification, to regulate the reproducibility crisis.Moreover, Labb previously identified 120 “gibberish papers” for their eventual withdrawal.Ultimately, the intention is for publishers to use the Seek & Blastn tool as part of the article-screening process.Based on the cost of the software, its accuracy and ease of use, it would enhance existing standards of academic publishing.Given the early risk for software-based error however, academic editors could explore the trial version of the software to improve it for subsequent commercialization.
After battling publishing giants like Elsevier and Wiley, ResearchGate has finally succumbed to the allegations of copyright infringement issues.It has decided to restrict access to about 1.Publishers consider this verdict as a big win in their favor.Let us learn some more details about ResearchGate and its copyright infringement issues.
About ResearchGate ResearchGate, a for-profit organization based in Berlin, Germany was founded in 2008.The website is one of the largest academic networks, allowing users to upload and share publications, book chapters, abstracts and so on.Notably, ResearchGate receives funds via venture capitalists and science funders, including Goldman Sachs, Wellcome Trust charity, and Bill Gates himself.However, the site recently came under heavy scrutiny due to copyright infringement and breach of the Coalition for Responsible Sharing (CRS).
A recent study exemplified the magnitude of its infringement.
It was seen that 201/500 randomly picked journal articles were in violation of publisher’s copyright.Allegations on ResearchGate In September, the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical (STM) Publishers formally expressed concerns about the ongoing, unauthorized article-sharing policy.They expressed their concerns in a letter and sent it to ResearchGate.The letter requested ResearchGate to implement an automated regulation system for article copyright allocation.This would delineate public/private sharing seamlessly.
ResearchGate, however, rejected the suggestion.Instead, it offered an alternative option for publisher-implemented formal notice provision to their company, termed “takedown notices”.Accordingly, a group of five publishers called the Coalition for Responsible Sharing (including ACS, Elsevier, Brill, Wiley and Wolters Kluwer) were to send millions of takedown notices.Since approximately 7 million copyrighted articles were freely available on ResearchGate, the approach seemed impractical.Instead, ACS and Elsevier filed a lawsuit in Germany, asking ResearchGate to clarify its legitimacy to post such content.
In the underlying site-process, internet trawling for copyrighted papers proceeded to request researchers to upload modified articles to their ResearchGate portfolio.Clearly, the action warranted that ResearchGate would lose some of its data available online or pay for damages at the court proceedings.ResearchGate Guilty Of Copyright Infringement In early November, yielding to the pressure from publishing giants, ResearchGate removed at least 1.
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7 million-copyrighted material from its website.Following months of conflict, the change ensures that papers will not be freely available online; instead, they can only be requested directly from authors.
It would then be the responsibility of researchers to provide/deny access to their research article, based on its sharing policy knowledge Grenoble Ecole de Management.It would then be the responsibility of researchers to provide/deny access to their research article, based on its sharing policy.
According to James Milne, spokesperson for the CRS, the decision to remove access to nearly 2 million articles marks a positive first step.Additionally, a private sharing network may further enhance the security model of article-sharing policies Discounts Buy Research Paper Custom Writing Service in Canada nbsp.Additionally, a private sharing network may further enhance the security model of article-sharing policies.The dispute with ResearchGate follows a series of actions by academic publishers against several websites providing access to copyrighted articles Discounts Buy Research Paper Custom Writing Service in Canada nbsp.The dispute with ResearchGate follows a series of actions by academic publishers against several websites providing access to copyrighted articles.For instance, in 2013, Elsevier sent 2800 takedown notices torazestudios.net/presentation.php.
For instance, in 2013, Elsevier sent 2800 takedown notices to .
Along with ACS, it jointly filed a lawsuit against Sci-Hub.The immense popularity of copyright infringement highlights a bigger problem in the lack of affordable licensing agreements for academic publications.Publishers may need to reach a “fair deal” on subscription costs and open access article models, in the near future.Other ongoing efforts for open scholarly research include the development of the “Free the Science” initiative.This long-term vision driven by The Electrochemical Society aims to bring about a transformative change in scholarly research communication.
Further efforts are also underway to develop a novel, non-profit scholarly network known as ScholarlyHub.Historian Guy Geltner heads the non-profit scholarly project in an effort to create a portal for academic publications and networking.In contrast to existing academic networks, impending projects will allow academics to own their data in a non-profit scholar-oriented community.In this way, novel approaches to scholarly communication can create a requisite shift in the existing paradigm.What do you think about this move of ResearchGate? Do you agree with the CRS that this step is a great win towards copyright infringement? Please share your thoughts in the comments section below.
About 15 years ago, a social media network called “Friendster” launched.It was a forum where people of similar interests could communicate and share ideas.Since then, networking sites have blossomed.In 2003, “LinkedIn” launched and now it has nearly 300 million members.During that same period, other social media sites, such as “Facebook” and “Twitter,” began to receive a huge share of the social media market.
Evolution of Social Media Scientists have taken advantage of the communication opportunities of social media.Although they have regularly used sites such as ResearchGate and, they are now using Facebook and Twitter to connect with colleagues.Twitter is now the most popular social media site that they use.The concern now is the effect that this increased use of Twitter has on the scientific community as a whole, particularly when referencing published papers in academic journals.By citing studies on Twitter, does its increased use send a false message about the interest in or importance of the studies? To address these questions, a team of researchers conducted a study on the impacts of “tweeting.
” The Study In August 2017, the results of a study entitled “The unbearable emptiness of tweeting—About journal articles” by researchers Nicolas Robinson-Garcia, Rodrigo Costas, Kimberley Isett, Julia Melkers, and Diana Hicks was published in PLOS ONE, a multidisciplinary open-access journal.The study evaluated only one discipline—dentistry—to assess whether tweeting about published papers has value in terms of recognition and interest in a study by colleagues.The researchers used the top 10 published papers on dentistry that were most frequently tweeted.They found the following three patterns of most tweets; each is discussed separately below:Broader tweeting.The study used data from the Web of Science (WoS) and PubMed, which indexed 84 and 47 journals, respectively, in dentistry disciplines.
This particular study was part of a larger study that looked at sources and channels of information in the dentistry disciplines.Thus, this study concentrated on only those dentistry papers that originated from the U.All journal references that were indexed in WoS and PubMed were downloaded.
Another database, , was used to specifically find tweets about the papers.
The PubMed and WoS identifiers were cross-checked with .While the former two databases track actual literature citations, tracks how many mentions an article receives on social media.It also tracks how many times those mentions provide links to the paper.Because Twitter is such a popular resource for scientists, uses it to compile its database.Study Results Within the five years studied (2011 to 2016), the researchers identified more than 2,200 individual Twitter accounts that composed tweets on more than 4,300 papers.
The tweets were analyzed as follows: Number of tweets compared to the number of WoS citations, Number of tweets about the paper, Number of accounts tweeting about each paper, Number of text variants represented in the tweets, and Number of tweets beginning with “@”.They then whittled the list down to the top 10 papers that were discussed on Twitter.As mentioned above, the tweets were divided into the following three categories.Single issue Single-issue tweets, as the name suggests, are tweets that focus on one issue.One paper on the use of acetaminophen appeared to be at the top of the list for single-issue tweets.
-based tweets, a high score according to ; however, about 73 percent of those were from only one account.That one source linked it 65 times to his own paper on the same subject.There were several other articles that fit into this tweet category; however, none had the same number of tweets or the level as the first on the list.
Social media managers Given that Twitter was launched in 2006, there were not many papers (about six percent) published earlier that were tweeted.Even so, in 2016, one paper published back in 1982 was tweeted 51 times.Shortly after its first tweet, there was a barrage of additional tweets on this one paper, but they happened to be identical.The researchers believed that this phenomenon was the result of the dentists with Twitter accounts hiring the same firm to manage their accounts.Even though these accounts are used for communicating with patients, the account managers were merely copying and reposting what’s called “bookworm text” over and over.
Although these managers promised “original” text to their clients, in reality, they just copied the same text and reposted it.Broader tweeting This third tweeting pattern appeared to provide evidence of an actual interest within the group of tweeters for the papers cited.One of the top papers cited was from 41 separate accounts.These appeared to be legitimate separate tweets from interested parties.Good or Bad for Published Papers? Whether using Twitter to tweet about scientific research is beneficial is subject to one’s opinion.
One author believes that tweeting allows open communication with colleagues.They can share ideas and thoughts about new research and discuss the value of older research.He does doubt, however, that Twitter has had any positive influence on the impact of published papers within the discipline studied.Given the results of the above study, the amount of tweeting overlap is huge; therefore, relying on the levels measured as significant might not be a real metric for assessing the interest in the article.The researchers stressed that caution should be taken when assessing the tweet numbers.
When duplicates and overlapping tweets are removed from the database, few are left on each paper.This should be a clue about the basis of a paper’s following.They also caution that relying on the often-inflated tweet counts for assessing interest might lead scholars to do research only on those types of interests and abandon other interesting topics.This would be a huge negative impact on research in any discipline.Have you used Twitter to tweet about your research? Has it helped in increasing the exposure of your paper? Share your thoughts with us in the comments below! A predatory publisher is usually an open access journal.
They charge authors article processing fees.These predatory journals collect fees without doing any peer review.Many academic authors publish in these predatory journals.Often, they don’t know that the journal is only pretending to conduct peer review.In addition, reviewers make decisions about academic promotions based on publications.
They are also important for tenure-track staff.Who Are Predatory Publishers? Predatory journals have been widely criticized.They collect money for a service they do not give.This deception means that they often publish poor quality research.Readers who are unaware may rely on these publications.
This could negatively affect the work that these readers do.Despite this, the number of articles in predatory journals is rising.About 400,000 papers were published in 8,000 predatory journals in 2014.Many young scientists publish in predatory journals because they are not aware of how they operate.
In addition, getting published in such a journal is easy which makes them attractive in a publish or perish environment.
Academic authors often have their work rejected.However, an easy acceptance from a predatory publisher can feel good.This will only last until the author finds out that the journal is predatory.Some authors also know that the journal where they submitted their work to is predatory.They may choose a predatory publisher in response to the need to publish.
Predatory publishers offer an easy, quick publication.Moreover, publications are required for academic promotion.If the journal is not scrutinized by your university, this can be one way to meet the requirements for the tenure track.The Impact of Predatory Journals Predatory journals can cause mistrust in open access journals.Genuine open access journals also charge authors a publication fee.
The main difference is they perform rigorous peer review.It can be hard for researchers to identify predatory open access journals.This was partly addressed by Jeffrey Beall who had a blog where he listed over 1,155 suspected predatory journals.However, this blog is now taken down and no longer available.Apart from mistrust, what impact do predatory journals have? A recent paper gives some answers on this matter.
Academic authors publish so that their work can be made public.Predatory journals help authors make their work public.However, the damage is usually done to the author’s reputation.There is a perception that work accepted by a predatory publisher would not be accepted anywhere else.Other researchers may look down on someone who has work in a predatory journal.
The journal in which a researcher publishes is often used to decide on academic promotions.It would take a lot of time to assess each paper of the researcher.One way to speed this process up is for the reviewer to simply see how many reputable journals the researcher has published in.If the researcher has many papers in good journals, the reviewer could assume that the researcher should be promoted.When poor quality research is published in a predatory journal, the general public might be deceived.
However, when the paper is obviously bad, it makes it clear that there was no peer review.Moreover, when the paper is of a higher quality, it can be hard for readers to see flaws in the research.This could be a problem if a reader were to apply the fraudulent research.Publishing data in predatory journals add to the difficulty of being able to identify trustworthy information online.These journals have many of the typical traits of a scientific journal.They publish articles, have editorial boards, and claim to do peer review.When they publish faulty studies, they may erode trust.What Can We Do? Predatory publishers are a growing problem.However, they point to issues within academia.
Without this emphasis on the number of publications, fewer researchers might publish in predatory journals.Decisions about tenure-track positions should be based on the quality of a researcher’s work.Academic promotions should not be based on the number of publications.Promotions should not be decided based on where a researcher publishes.We have to stop assuming that the journal in which a paper is published in is a measure of its quality.
This is the reason why researchers are often reminded that a journal’s impact factor is not a true indication of an article’s value.We need alternative ways to assess the usefulness of a paper.For example, how often a paper has been cited is a better clue to its value than the journal’s impact factor.Predatory publishers damage the open access industry.They make it harder for true scientific journals to gain the trust of authors who want to publish in an open access journal.
The damage done by predatory journals can also be used by traditional journals to convince researchers to avoid the open access route.Open access is important for researchers all over the world.Any steps towards keeping information hidden does not advance science.Predatory publishers are open access but do not conduct peer review.
Academic authors may be tricked into publishing in a predatory journal.When the true nature of the journal comes to light, it may interfere with academic promotion or tenure-track decisions.This would be less of a problem if the quality of an article was not assumed based on the journal it was published in.Have you received invitations to publish from predatory publishers? Do you also think that it is difficult to identify these fake journals? Share your thoughts with us in the comments below! ScholarlyHub is the brainchild of Guy Geltner, a professor of medieval history at the University of Amsterdam.Along with other collaborators, he developed ScholarlyHub as a non-profit scholarly network and publishing platform.
The aim of the website is to allow academics to publish, share, and access work without any financial constraints.This site also offers the potential to find and work with colleagues in similar fields and develop research/teaching projects.Furthermore, researchers can store datasets securely on the site and become a mentor to foster a proactive scholarly community.How is ScholarlyHub Different? Since an alternative to or ResearchGate was unavailable, ScholarlyHub marks a new focus entirely on scholarship alone.In addition, the timing of the non-profit site is also impeccable, since for-profit sites are having recent conflicts regarding copyrighted materials.
After two years of hard work, the site launched recently, with a fund-raising campaign due in the next 10 days.According to site functions, members will pay a small fee ($25) to create a personal, project-related profile, with scholarly content.Members can also join existing networks or create new ones, and engage in a list of activities.Visitors can freely access content, search and download on the site, subject to a fair-use policy (per visit).Presently, venture-capital backed platforms such as and ResearchGate are quite popular.
However, they undermine a researcher’s interest as their scholarly recognition is merely a product.Such profit-seeking entities can influence citation metrics that determine academic career success.Despite free alternatives, the reward of ScholarlyHub priced at $25 per year, is the ability to own your own data.Risks Involved in Venture-Capital Backed Platforms Most academics are unaware of the potential pitfalls of for-profit platforms currently hosting their work.Foremost, does not have an educational affiliation despite the top-level domain.
The site received heavy criticism after requesting a fee in exchange for site-based recommendations of academic publications.However, ScholarlyHub intends to waiver the fees substantially to ensure access to a global network of academics.Although the fund raising target of €500,000 will be tough to reach, Geltner hopes scholars will share the projected vision.The premium feature, introduced in is yet another effort to charge academics for their work and “status”.Another motivation behind ScholarlyHub is to change the status quo of academics.
It aims to prevent assigning status/percentile to rank scholars.This would lead to better form of academic stratification.Raising Awareness among Scholars In order to accomplish this shared vision of scholarly freedom, it is imperative that academics become aware of the existing platform’s undertones.While is not making a profit at present, venture capital backing means it will need to do so at some point.Otherwise, as a business model, it will be sold in parts or shut down.
Facebook and Google are clear examples of how free sites get transformed into for-profit sites.This would be the fate of for-profit academic publishing sites as well.The user then becomes a by-product to whom they sell ads while gathering information/analytics on the platform for the academic publishing market.There is, however, surprisingly minimal awakening among academics to this parasitic relationship.Hence, they do not question the use of for-profit platforms as well.
ScholarlyHub aims to alert scholars to this existing business model, built on the free labor of academic input, including data and publications.Some academics have even considered regulating some sites to prevent commercial exploitation, although such efforts may only fuel the existing model.These sites are not open access publishers either, compared to University repositories; they just use the term to promote their portal.It is now time for academics to pay more attention and stop refusing to think about where they host their publications.Collective Responsibility As responsible academics, the goal of ScholarlyHub is to build a more ethical publishing system with shared governance.
The effort to use scholarly labor in support of not-for-profit platforms is a practical alternative to the existing business model.ScholarlyHub encompasses this vision in collaboration with a diverse network of scholars.The success of such an effort will become plausible relative to the collective awareness and involvement of the academic community.How do you think this initiative of ScholarlyHub will benefit the scientific world? Will it gain as much popularity as ResearchGate and ? Please share your thoughts in the comments section below.Following a recent ruling by a district court in Virginia in favor of the American Chemical Society (ACS), several domains of the controversial pirate website, Sci-Hub, have become inactive.
8 million in damages, the ruling also stated that internet search engines and web-hosting services should refrain from providing access to such websites that engage in copyright infringement.As of now, the domains for , , and have now been made inactive and set to the status of “serverHold,” which indicates that the domain is deactivated in the DNS.With this change, users are not able to easily access Sci-Hub; however, the domain is still functional.
Although the court order has resulted in the inactivation of several domains for Sci-Hub, Elbakyan reports that she intends to keep Sci-Hub functional and is currently working on a fix for the DNS issues.
For those unaware of Sci-Hub, Alexandra Elbakyan started it in 2011 with the aim to make research papers free by bypassing paywall barriers in academic publishing.In fact, earlier this year, Sci-Hub had faced a similar lawsuit from Elsevier, which it lost and the ruling awarded ~$15 million in damages to Elsevier.Martin Eve, a Literature, Technology, and Publishing professor at the University of London, Birkbeck, stated that such DNS takedowns might prove sufficient for academic publishers but it will not lead to the complete shutdown of Sci-Hub.Academics will find other means to continue accessing the website.He also added that publishers should instead develop better models for scholarly communication that involve open access to research studies thereby reducing the need for portals like Sci-Hub.
For more details on the background and legal issues around Sci-Hub, you can read the following articles on Enago Academy: The Metadata 2020 program will advocate for richer metadata.Metadata is simply digital data that describes other data.This ambitious program is spearheaded by CrossRef and advised by ORCID.Metadata 2020 involves various academic stakeholders: namely universities, publishers, funders, library associations, and any other groups that care about scholarly communication.Importantly, the Metadata 2020 program is a community-led initiative.
Program Details This advocacy campaign has a clear aim.Through a community-led effort, it wants to generate more awareness of, and resources for, richer metadata in scholarly communication.This means not only research institutions but also researchers must step up.After all, they are the ones who create and use this scholarly metadata.A key part of this mission is to get scholarly publishers to embrace richer metadata.
Specifically, to enrich deposits of metadata concerning the publications in three of its aspects: journal, issue, and article data.For example, the following details if deposited would enable a body of richer metadata to form.