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`This headline represents my personal view which is strongly held and dominates my recent actions and writings.Thhis view has rcenetly (October 20th 2015) been stated by Donald Trump Unfortunately it appears that most americans do not agree and believe in an American exceptionalism.
It is the ONLY country that has ever used Atomic Bombs (really nuclear Bombs) against a civil population deliberately Write me an lab report physics Writing from scratch one hour CBE College Junior.It is the ONLY country that has ever used Atomic Bombs (really nuclear Bombs) against a civil population deliberately.
It is just over 100 years since the first world war started and it is instructive to consider how rapidly it started.Leaders and bureaucrats had thought they would secure peace by making binding treaties that if country A were attacked country B would come to their defense .Leaders and bureaucrats had thought they would secure peace by making binding treaties that if country A were attacked country B would come to their defense.I count 5 separate agreements or treaties .
I count 5 separate agreements or treaties.
When a Serbian nationalist killed the Archduke, Austria went to war against Serbia.But Serbia had an agreement with Czarist Russia which declared war on Austria.Very rapidly Prussia (Germany) attacked Russia.Then by treaty France declared war on Prussia.
Finally the “Entente Cordiale” brought England in, together with nations of the British Empire, Canada and South Africa.
During the cold war between USSR and the west, NATO was created to reassure Europeans.But once the cold war was over and the immediate threat was gone, I believe that we in the USA shou ld have emphasized peaceful cooperation with the new Russia.The NATO treaty makes it clear, as President Obama has reminded us in 2014 that if one member is attacked ALL will come to its defense immediately.But the catastrophe of July/August 1914 could recur but somewhat faster.
In addition there is the sceptre of nuclear weapons.On August 6th 1945 many scientists realized that mankind now knew how to destroy itself.Einstein stated the problem most simply.“Everything has changed except our way of thinking".I believe we must heed Einstein and change our way of thinking.
Gorbechev tried to make accommodation with NATO but he was rebuffed.Now Russia is not only being rebuffed but is being ignored.But who is NATO? Does NATO represent the people? If so how can I vote to change its directorate? It is hard to escape the conclusion that NATO is run by the military of the member countries.Not a very democratic system! The immediate effects are all too clear in the eastern Ukraine.The USA needs Russia more that the reverse.
Yet there is constant pressure from some US politicians to remove Russia's influence in the world.In 1997 an important group of US government advisors wrote to the US President asking that NATO not be expanded.Unfortunately their advice was not taken.A simple look at a map of the world shows that Russia is larger than the USA.How many American leaders take Russia seriously? How many consider the simple fact that each of Russia and USA has MANY more nuclear weapons ready to go than the total of all other countries?In this I suggest we note the words of the famous American philosopher POGO.
"We have met the enemy and he is us".In the late 1930s advice was given to Americans “Go west young man and make your fortune”.Indeed many did and California was rapidly populated.But it is not generally realized that a similar advice had been developing in the USSR.People were encouraged to go to the wide spaces of the east.
Why should that worry USA? Japan had good reason of course and that concern led to the war of 1905.We have to counter the suggestionthatthe present concern in the USA is based on an immoral desire to run the world.Should US should use the power of NATO?Or should it prefer instead to work with the UN.In this I am reminded of the statement in 1954 by Winston Churchill in a meeting in the White House: "Jaw, jaw ,jaw is better than war, war, war.
" (Only an oral statement is available)Other thoughtful writers have looked at this same problem.A distinguished anthropologist Dr Scott Atran in particular in his 2010 book "Talking to the Enemy" (In this case terrorists) discusses “sacred values” – values that a person or country may hold that seem contrary to its economic (usually short term economic) interests.I urge you to look carefully at his discussions with terrorists.In the UK in May 1940,almost the whole population held such “sacred values” which enabled the British people to challenge the Nazi evil.
As noted in my auto biography: "Physics is Fun",I was prepared in May 1940 at age 14 to behave as a terrorist if England was invaded, and later learned that 14 year old school girls in SE England were also training as terrorists.They made and tested Molotov cocktails.This behavior surprised and encouraged other countries to stand up to the evil Nazis.In August 6th 1945 the world learned that we could destroy civilization even with a war with only 100 bombs.But in 2014 we have thousands of bombs ready to go.
Yet we still talk about Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), or NUTS as if they were possible options for a long term policy.Important Russian military people (such asthe Defense Minister of the Soviet Union - Marshal Yazov) have declared that: "A nuclear war cannot be won".This was said in his office to a group of us led by Lady Caroline Cox, on our return from a visit Armenian-Azerbaijan borderI have NEVER heard such a simple statement from any US military person, uniformed or civilian.Do they understand that a nuclear war would destroy civilization? We must keep our military men under control.In that matter I applaud the warning given in October 20th 2014 by Secretary Kerry.
We must not have another "cold war".Although in a humorous way (and humor is often a way of emphasizing a point)a Pakistani diplomat told me that he never ate as well as during that cold war.The USSR and USA competed for third world attention.He was invited to lunch with the Soviet delegation and a competing dinner with the US delegation!Once we recognize Russia in this way we can work together on subsidiary world problems.
What is a country and does it have a right to exist? More important, what are its duties toward the rest other world? How does one work together to reduce the risk of nuclear war? Of epidemics becoming pandemics? (as the 1919 flu?)Epidemics and Pandemics In the middle ages 1/3 of the population of Europe vanished (the Black Death) and probably 1/3 of the world population vanished also.
New diseases could indeed destroy us.The flu epidemic of 1919 killed more people than the world war immediately preceding it.But not until the end of WWII has the development been studied,This has led people to emphasize that we CAN prevent an epidemic becoming a pandemic,This has been particularly emphasized by meetings of the World Federation of Scientists in Erice, Sicily by Dr Garwin and myself.The steps are not difficult but they must be taken by at least 80% of the affected population and some way MUST be found to include people relying on "herd immunity".This was one of the items that I talked about at a joint meeting with the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in the Vatican (my published paper).
(I hope to find a direct link to the Vatican).But official organizations (including, alas the Harvard University School of Public Health) have been slow to take such preventive action (among other things serious discussion of who is to pay?) .America prefers to react after the situation is serious.EBOLAI am most concerned in August 2014 with the outbreak of the Ebola virus in west Africa.Warnings were given by people studying emerging viruses (e.g Nicholas Mellor) as early as January 2004 but were ignored.We must admit that the epidemic became a pandemic.WHO, US Center for Disease Control, and even Doctors without Borders share and should admit the blame.
This pandemic is presently out of control.Should the world respond as we did 3,000 years ago when we sent lepers out into the desert with no human contact?(although food was provided for them) or with yellow Fever 200 years ago when victims were sent to an off shore island?Theworld must act to stop the pandemic in Liberia, Ghana and Sierra Leone and prevent one in US and European nations.Should these countries be quarantined with food and supplied dropped by helicopter without human interaction?In this I recommend one of the most sensible voices - of Dr Howard Markel, a pediatrician and author at the University of Michigan.I recommend in particular a webpage of his.IRAQ and IRANMy interest in Iraq and Iran started when I was 10 years old.
We had to read, in ancient Greek, the report of a mercenary turned adventure story teller Xenophon “the retreat to the sea”.There was a conflict between the MEDES (Iraqis) and the PERSIANS (Iranians)Xenophon led about 20,000 Greek Mercenaries fighting for the Medes against Cyrus - ruler of Persia.Their armament was swords and javelins.They lost and their communication with Greece was cut off so he headed north across Asia Minor, “living off the land” to a Greek town on the southern shore of the Black Sea.Xenophon described the joy of the soldiers as they saw the sea at last.
When after crossing Canada by car in 1951 I saw the sea I immediately cried out “Thalassa”!We all know of the battle of Marathon in Thrace as Cyrus the Persian was defeated in a narrow pass and a soldier ran to Athens to bring the news of an invading army.This magnificent exploit is celebrated the world over.But, alas, the history behind it not widely known.I became aware of Iran when Mossadegh was elected by the people of Iran as prime minister.
At the time Herbert Morrison was Foreign Minister of UK in the labour government of Clement Attlee.Herbert Morrison was a very able Trades Union Leader but he was out of his depth.Iran took over the Anglo-Iranian Oil company (later BP) and claimed the oil was Iranian with no compensation for the take over.Although Attlee had stated there would be no force, the Conservative government of Winston Churchill took over.Churchill had two problems.
When he was First Lord of the Admiralty (I believe in 1912) he arranged for the British government to buy the Anglo-Iranian oil company to guarantee oil supplies to fuel the naval fleet instead of coal.He was obviously interested when the Iranian government wanted to ignore the UK who was the owner.
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Secondly he was always an advocate for the "British Empire".In 1945 for example he would not have given India its independence.This was, I believe a factor helping to turn him out of office in 1945 Catalog of Copyright Entries Third Series 1964 January June.
This was, I believe a factor helping to turn him out of office in 1945.
England, now led by Churchill, and helped by the US (probably the CIA) organized a coup which overthrew the governmentreplacing the Shah with a person more pliable to oil interests.It is important to realize that Iran is a central Asian country more than a middle eastern one 19 Oct 2016 - Twentieth-century United States history. History and theory of modern architecture and planning. History of African-American urbanization. Race and the design professions. American urban policy. Social movements. Community-based organizations. PUBLICATIONS. “Governing at the Tipping Point: .It is important to realize that Iran is a central Asian country more than a middle eastern one.However a speech by the present Prime Minister Mr Rouhani in the UN in September 27th 2014makes very good sense 19 Oct 2016 - Twentieth-century United States history. History and theory of modern architecture and planning. History of African-American urbanization. Race and the design professions. American urban policy. Social movements. Community-based organizations. PUBLICATIONS. “Governing at the Tipping Point: .However a speech by the present Prime Minister Mr Rouhani in the UN in September 27th 2014makes very good sense.He argues that the area has been destabilized by actions of the USA and allies who should apologize to the peoples concerned razestudios.net/laboratory-report/help-me-do-an-engineering-laboratory-report-3-days-premium-a4-british-european-for-me.
He argues that the area has been destabilized by actions of the USA and allies who should apologize to the peoples concerned.
On behalf of my British friends who supported Herbert Morrison or more particularly the maniacal actions of the EMPIRE that Winston Churchill supported I apologize razestudios.net/laboratory-report/help-me-do-an-engineering-laboratory-report-3-days-premium-a4-british-european-for-me.On behalf of my British friends who supported Herbert Morrison or more particularly the maniacal actions of the EMPIRE that Winston Churchill supported I apologize.I wish bureaucrats and ministers would do likewise. Alas apologies are rare in politics although even more important than in ordinary life.My “recent” fascination with Iraq was fed by the early days of my visiting the middle east - and in particular Kuwait.
I was invited to visit Kuwait about 1975 by the Deputy Director (a Syrian) of the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) and met the director Adnan Shihab-Eldin who was and is probably the best scientist south of the line between Beirut and Baghdad.
While there I met Usameh Jamali, born in Lebanon but flown to Baghdad as a baby and who, while at Tufts University in the early 1970shad audited the seminar course on Economics of Energy taught by Dr AJ Meyer and myself.He introduced me to several ex-patriate Iraqis, who preferred not to live in Iraq under the domination of Saddam Hussein.In particular Usameh explainedthe situation of his father (Fadhel Jamali) who was then a Professor at the University of Tunis.He also introduced me to his colleagues at OAPEC (organization for Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries) related to but NOT the same as OPEC (organization of Petroleum Exporting countries) which included non Arab countries such as Iran, and Nigeria.I had already met Abdlatif Al-Hamad when in 1975.
AJ Meyer had invited him to talk to our seminar.Abdullatif was the thirddirector of the Arab Foundation for Social and Economic Development which had been set up by the Arab League in 1967/8.My involvements with other countries in the worldI therefore have made many friends in Kuwait over the years.I noted that most of them could have got jobs in any major US University but preferred to stay and help bring their countries into the 20th century.I admired them all, and still admire most of them for theirdedication.
As described below under Iraq, Iran, and Russia, this view was extended into these countries also.I have not hesitated to act when I believe that I have something to contribute.But it is a matter of extraordinary sadness that my efforts in the former USSR,Iraq,Pakistan, Armenia and the Holy Land have not been as helpful as I had hoped.My hopes for peace between the USSR and its post Gorbachev fragments, from my first meeting in Russia and Ukraine led to reduced confrontation from 25,000 activebombs to 3,000 or so but confrontation still exists.(100 is already too many)The period with 25,000 active bombs,from 1965 on was utterly crazy and mankind is lucky to have survived it.
(1) My visit to Kuwaitshowed me an important role for Kuwait in the world but, alas, since 1991 the Kuwaitis havenot quite showed the leadership for which I had hoped.(2)My role in Iraq did not prevent the 2nd Gulf war.The second Gulf war was a mistake and while admitting the mistake the USA has not fully admitted its causeand seems likely to repeat it.Nor, most importantly has the USA apologized for the mistake.(3)My friendship with Jewish refugees in 1944-1948 had led me to hope that a state of Israel would have the generosity, hope and sense of justice that Jews had been denied for 2 millenia.
But I had hoped for too much as noted.( /~wilson/HUMANRIGHTS/Einstein Letter Warning Of Zionist Facism In )On the one hand I had hoped that the Jewish people having suffered persecution for over 2 millenia would not inflict suffering on others.Although Palestinians always recognized Jews as individuals,but they were unwilling to recognize Israel as a zionist state with special privileges and Americans in particular interpreted this a a refusal to recognize Israel as a state.In particular Israel and the USA did not respond to the initiative of Prince, later King, Abdullah in an unprecedented unanimous vote of the Arab League.I call attention to the artcicles and activiety byHelmut Osterman who left Germany for the Holy Land in 1934 snd fought to help establish Israel but he since changed his name to Uri Avnery and founded the orgnization Gush Shalom.His paper at a conference in January 2025 "The Rock of Our Existence" is particularly important.Does not this suggest that, whatever the past situation,that Palestine now has no "partner in peace".
I explain my disappointents in Israel which has been less forgiving than I had hoped./~wilson/ (4)My visits to Indians and Pakistanis in the 1970s had led me to hope that they would find a peaceful solution to their differences.I was reliably informed that when President Ayub Khanof Pakistan first met with Prime Minister IndiraGandhi ofIndia, a historic first some ten yeras ago, discussion of control of nuclear weapons was top of the agenda.Suspicion remains and has led Pakistan to react in Afghanistan in unfortunate ways.(5)One Persian acquaintance at school (about 1938-1939)had encouraged me to a positive view of Iranian history,and Iran's role in US supplies to USSR in 1942-3 by the "back door" led me to hope that Iran would become a helpful country in the world.(6)If we are worried about the Taliban should we not we should make common cause with others whofor good reason hate the Taliban more that we do?Iran leaders have clearly said as much.Why do we insist on following George W Bush (Dubya) who called Iran as being part of an"axis of evil"?Is that a phrase suggesting a cooperation and hopefully change?Maybe in the discussions about Iran's ability to separate uranium isotopes and the obvious desire of the world to prevent them using this ability to make atomic bombs this could be quietly brought into the picture.
A FUNDAMENTAL RULE PRESENTLY IGNORED If there is a choicce between two actions, should one subsidize the actionone wants or tax the action one does not want? It is easy to see that subsidies can only be temporary and may be divisive.MANKIND'S DESIRES STEADILY INCREASE WITHOUT LIMIT Subsidizing will not work for ever.Politicians, Media and many public economists only follow it until the next election! THE DOUBLE DIVIDEND For thirty years good economists have argued for tax collected my be used for a gereral fund (which they argue is economically stabilizing) or specifically used for the poor and disadvataged.The latest is by Professor Dayle Jorgensen who argued for over 30 years now in the"Double Dividend" (MIT Press).The choice is easy to see for fuel economy in cars (increase the gas tax or subidize efficient cars) but it appears in many public decisions.
Dale was interviewed for Harvard Magazine for the September-October 2014 issue.In his book "Double Dividend" he emphasizes that taxing carbon and repaying the tax to general revenue or directly to the people, is economically the right thing to do. There is a subsidiary issue which we urged.Any control should be as early in the calculated chain of events as possible.
This was proposed by Dr Klaus Lackner of Columbia University and myself (REFERENCE).
These thoughts were formally brought to the attention of Nicholas Stern (now Lord Nicholas) four years ago by the scientists assembled at Erice, Sicily.He was and is the architect of the English (and subsequently European proposals) but our prop osal was ignored by Lord Nicholas and those he advised.If you look at Lord Nicholas statments I suggest he violated the fundamental rule not once but twice.Newspaper reports suggest that some countries are getting the point but in US politics THE PROBLEM STILL REMAINS.THE IMPORTANCE OF SCIENTISTS IN PUBLIC POLCYI argue that scientists MUST get involved in public policy and not stay in an ivory tower.
They, especially physicists, think very fundamentally about problems and inpublic policy about world problems.I argue that any public policy "expert" who forgets this is almost by definition not an "expert".This is especially true of the Harvard University physics department.I was hired as an assistant professor at Harvard by Professor Kenneth Bainbridge (department chairman at the time) and was encouraged to come by Professor Norman Ramsey. It should be remembered that Bainbridge was in charge of the Alamagordo test in July 1945 and Ramsey was director of the Atomic Energy Laboratory in Tinian to which were delivered pieces of metal which were assembled into devices which were loaded on the airplane and dropped on Hiroshima and then Nagasaki.
The name of the airplane "Enola Gay" is better known publicly.The military ensures that its pilots were remembered and honored.Likewise we should remember Ramsey and his team.Both Bainbridge and Ramsey were eager that this never be repeated.Many discussions of these issues took place in the physics department.
I wrote a brief public biography of Bainbridge and have been writing about Ramsey.Strangely many supposed "policy experts"did not realize this experience which led to expertize.This is particularly vital in any discussion of events involving nuclear weapons, and or events that can lead to pandemics, which might destroy civilization.Alas we are only just beginning to face this.My own activities have led me to write a number of letters to government and newspapers.
It is particularly important in the USA, the only country almost exclusively run by lawyers.Almost all of Congress and now a president are lawyers.There is only one physical scientist in the Congress who has a PhD.
Fortunately Bill Foster (with a PhD in physics from Harvard) was reelected in 2014 in spite of strong opposition.I realize that public policy experts tend to assume that the SCIENCE is settled and can be simply described.As the discussion of Global Climate Change tells us that the Public Policy objectives and the Science are intextricably linked.The complete ignoring by Lord Stern of the scientists in Erice, Sicily is a bad example of this.
TerrorismAlthough it was obvious in 1945 that a nuclear bomb could be used by a terrorist organization (usually thought to be a state actor) I was not directly involved until 1970 when I had become involved with energy and environment issues, but I remain deeply concerned that we do not learn from small actions.In 1970 we did not talk about terrorism.Locally in USA it was sabotage by a person deciding to avenge himselfon his employer.It is now all too clear that when there is a confrontation that has lasted 50 years or so there is potential for international terrorism.
These confrontations include Ireland, particularly Northern Ireland since 1970;Ceylon/Sri-Lanka where the Tamil tribe has disagreed with the Sri-Lankan or Indian government;the relics of the Ottoman empire where Serbia and Bulgaria have disagreed;The relics of the Austrian- Hungarian empire where Serbians and Austrians have been at odds;the Caucusus where Armenians and Azeris have quarelled - with the Kurds acting as a third (interested ) party complicating the question and ofof course the eastern Mediterranean (Israel/Palestine) where there have been disputes for millenia.In 9/11/2001 the attack on the twin towers led Americans to change their views.President Bush promised to "get the guys who did this".But the guys had died in these suicide attacks.In the next couple of years I gave a dozen or so talks entitling them "Complications" describing how to logically order a response.
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I have since accepted the arguments by Scott Atran (add link to his 2010 book) that the danger is the "sacred values" that persuade extremists to pursue actions contrary to their economic interest.I also accept Dick Garwin's important distinction between "ordinary"weapons,ordinaryexplosives,knives, etc that cannot be contained and weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear bombs, nerve gases etc.(See the next paragraph)In September 2014 we consider the threat posed by the organization ISIS 1653, John Sassamon, a Massachuset Indian, became the first known Native American to study at Harvard (probably for a term or so). philosophy, mathematics, or science supplies the best mental training, whether general education should be chiefly literary or chiefly scientific, have no practical lesson for us to-day..(See the next paragraph)In September 2014 we consider the threat posed by the organization ISIS.
It is trying to get international support for military action against ISIS.
But the trap into which many people would have us fall, is to for the USA to lead and coordinate these international activities.But as acoordinator we wouldinevitably be called anti-Islam How to write a lab report physics College Junior double spaced Formatting Academic.But as acoordinator we wouldinevitably be called anti-Islam.The USA MUST NOT let that happen or the USA will inevitably become a target for extreme Muslim terrorists (often called jihadists) razestudios.net/homework/best-websites-to-order-an-human-resources-management-hrm-homework-college-freshman-16-pages-4400-words-double-spaced.The USA MUST NOT let that happen or the USA will inevitably become a target for extreme Muslim terrorists (often called jihadists).This view seems to be shared by the distinguished economist Jeffery Sachs.
Distinguishing terror actions with small and large consequence sAfter the terrible events of 11th September the American public became aware of these problems.
But they have demanded short term solutions which may have aggravated longer term issues.It is a clear situation wherethe role of a scientist is important.As in accident analyses, where an eventtree is important, one should consider the events which can lead to an undesirable outcome.As in accident situations we should stop the terrorist as early as possible in the chain of events.It follows that it is unwise to separate discussion ofthe situation which causes a terrorist to exist and thetarget of his terror threat.
I discussed this in many fora since 9/11 and participated in some discussions that have taken place in Ericeand are among my numbered published reports.I have become more and more concerned that the "media" TV and newspapers fail to explain the problem to the public but aggravate it for their own reasons.One must also distinguish effects where there can be a huge consequence (such as nuclear war or a huge pandemic) from actions where a few people only are affected such as the Boston Marathon bombing of 2011.Although it was obvious in 1945 that a nuclear bomb could be used by a terrorist organization (usually thought to be a state actor) I was not directly involved until 1970 when I had become involved with energy and environment issues, but I remain deeply concerned that we do not learn either from history or from small actions.Bombs and PandemicsSince August 1945 it has been clear to me that mankind can destroy itself with nuclear weapons.
In May 1940 I saw my first air raid and a bomb with 50 pounds of TNT destroyed a house (and its owner).The Hiroshima bomb had the explosive power of about 17,000 tons of TNT.Andrei Sakharov’s Nuovo Zembla test (called by the USSR the TSAR BOMBA) had the explosive power of 50 million tons of TNT equivalent TWO BILLION TIMES AS BIG.It has since been clear that this is far bigger than any other accident we normally consider.Mankind now knows how to destroy itself.
"Everything has changed except our way of thinking".I urge everyone reading this website (blog) to consider this simple fact and remember it in all public policy decisions.In the "cold war" between the USSR and the USA an arms race took place and tens of thousands of nuclear bombs were made on each side.This was indeed madness and "justified" by Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD).
Hopefully neither side dare use nuclear weapons; how many are necessary to scare the other side? That depends on the level of understanding of the "other side".With ordinary weapons there is a theorem by Lanchester in 1914that the side with the most weapons at the right place and time wins.My favorite example is the tank battle in the "western desert" just south of Tobruk in Libya in summer 1941.There were about 300 tanks on each side and at the end only 3 tanks were moving.The three were British so the British "won".
(An older one is of course the battle ofBlenheim some hundreds of years ago)Now imagine a battle with 300 nuclear bombs on each side, each with the address of a major town.At the end of the battle 3 bombs were remaining, did the owner of the three "win"?No.So did everyone including non-participants.Civilization as we know it would come to an end.
This was stated to a group of us, in his office by Marshal Yazov of the USSR on May 29th 1981 about 10 am.This group, led by the Deputy Speaker of the UK House of Lords,Baroness Cox (Caroline) had been to a meeting about Chernobyl, and had just returned from facing down Azeri militia on the border."Chernobyl taught those of us who did not know that a nuclear war could not be won.If a device not intended to explode (Chernobyl reactor) caused that much mess a nuclear war would destroy the planet".I have heard no pentagon leader, civilian or military make such a clear statement.
I wish that every military man would state the problem as clearly as Marshal Yazov and think every day about its logical consequences.It follows that the first side to reduce the (undesirable) number of nuclear bombs wins and saves money.It is generally agreed that having weapons grade plutonium for tens of thousands of weapons is excessive.But it is not yet agreed that reducing to 100 or so is a clear financial advantage for the "side"that does the reduction whether or not is is balanced by the other side.Michael Flanders of the duo Flanders and Swann wrote a song:"Twenty tons of TNT" We MUST remind ourselves of this.
i think it couldwell be ung ar aa international gatherings.(Pief) Panofsky wrote to the President (Clinton) calling attention to the fact that each of USSR and USA hadover 10,000 nuclear weapons and a stockpile of "bomb grade" plutonium.
He called the existence a "clear and president danger" implying that he should act.But he did not act and no President has acted since.In principle the Secretary of Energy should remind the administration of this danger but in spite of being publicly urged by scientists (including Pief Panofsky) to change the Energy Department declined to do so.Fortunately the present Secretary of Energy Dr Ernest Moniz) has publcly supported the Secretary of State in the recent year 2011sgreeement with Iran.
I have sent him a personal letter of thanks for so doing.
The fundamental reason for incremental linearity There is a lot of argument about whether exposures (and consequent doses) are linear at low doses.I have argued especially in a paper by Crawford and myself (Low Dose Linearity the Rule or the exception Human and Environmental Risk Asessment 2(2) page 305, 1996) that if there is an adverse effect caused by a pollutant or action, then a small increase in the dose or action will cause a small increase in the effect.This is implicit in the claim that radiation at small exposure and consequent small doses only makes a small increase.But it is not generally realized that the same agument applies to chemical pollutants.The argument which was popular in the 1970s that only genotoxic chemicals will have such effects at low doses is clearly WRONG.
Three chemicals that the US EPA most loves to hate, Asbestos, Arsenic, Mercury are NOT genotoxic.It is time that this be understood as a scientific statement with its consequences.Many people argue that for new technologies there is a LEARNING CURVE.Yet for nuclear matters there seems to be a FORGETTING CURVE.
It is fundamental and must be seriously discussed.The false hope of an ABM systemThe idea came up in the 1960s that it was possible to build an Anti-Ballistic Missile system to prevent a nuclear attack.There is general (alas not unanimous) scientific agreement that this will not work.I note that other scientists more distinguished than I (Bethe, Garwin, Panofsky) have been arguing for over 40 years that an ABM system will not work.
All three gave such testimony in the US Congress in the late 1960sThe world set up an Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty in 1972 to stop this escalation of the arms race.The ABM treaty was abrogated in the 2002 by the USA.In 1973 Professor Wolfgang (Pief) Panofsky,Chairman of several important committees (and my wife's brother-in-law) wrote to the President of the USA (President Clinton) calling his attention to the huge stockpile of nuclear weapons and of"bomb grade" plutonium.He called their existence a "clear and present danger" to the country implying that the President should act.In principle it is up to the Secretary of Energy (DOE), now Dr Ernest Moniz) to urge this but he did not.(Pief) Panofsky continued to raise the issue and his important oped piece in the San Francisco , "Missiles No Defense" was published two days after he died.I have written and talked about this several times at the Erice meetings of the World Federation of Scientists.
( ) This is clearly another area where the inextricable linkage between public policy and science is ignored at our peril.I note that other scientists more distinguished than I (Bethe, Garwin, Panofsky) have been arguing forover 40 years that an ABM system will not work.I was a strong supporter of the Eisenhower "Atoms for Peace" initiative, and its partial implementation in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty,but left details up to the scientists named above (Bethe, Garwin, Panofsky) and others such as Professor Bernard Feld of MIT who went to the Pugwash meetings,I felt after 1975 or so that there was a major gap which I could help to fill.Discussions on nuclear weapons took place between those states which had them.I was more interested in those countries which did not have them but had the capability to make them in a short time but had declined to do so.Can we encourage them not to make them and lead the world by example?I started to visit India, China and then Middle Eastern countries.I found to my sorrow that many leaders in Pakistan or Arab countries did not even understand the questions and issues.The urgency, magnitude and difficulty of my self imposed, task increased after President George W Bush (Dubya) abrogated the ABM treaty.I strongly argued these positions in the seminars on prevention of Nuclear War in Erice in the 1980s with Dr Evgeny Velikhov (science advisor to Secretary Gorbachev)and argued strongly with Dr Edward Teller who took a different position.
(See the photograph of myself with Velikov and Teller in the background)Understanding USSRI have spent considerable time and effort trying to understand the USSR and its peoples.I note that our family, like much of the western worldin 1934 was thinking about the "RED MENACE" (and a similar problem the "YELLOW PERIL").In 1938 our history teacher (Mr Berry) asked what we wished to be and I responded that I wanted to join the British diplomatic service and travel.Later, in 1948 I read Fitzroy Maclean's book EASTERN APPROACHES (printed in US as "EASTWARD TO ADVENTURE") and I was enthralled.I was at the International Conference on High Energy physics in Geneva in July 1957 and at the same time Hans Bethe (for the USA) and Igor Tamm (for the USSR)were in Geneva as science advisors to the politicians negotiating the limited test ban treaty.A small group of us (Hillman, Panofsky, Hofstadter, Tamm and myself) climbed a small mountain near Lauseanne where Igor Tamm opened up.( I took a photograph of the group in page 49 of my autobiography) Tamm told us about his recent visit to China.I suspected then,and still believe, that he went to tell the Chinese that the USSR would NOT help them build an atomic bomb.On that climb he also mentioned his (doctoral) student Andrei Dmitreyvich Sakharov,of whom Tamm said "he is brighter than I am".
Historical facts harvard university
In 1958 I made my first visit to the USSR to the High Energy Physics conference in Kiev, Ukraine.Russian radiation issuesJust as at Harvard where Professors Kenneth Bainbridge and Norman Ramsey encouraged, almost insisted, that young physicists understand effects of radiation on health I wanted to understand the studies in Russia.For these and other reasons I was asked (by the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus) to help found the International Sakharov College of Radioecology, in Minsk, Belarus and be the Chairman of its' International Advisory Committee (which position I held until 2001) 14 Apr 2017 - people doing the hiring will have a background similar to your own—say, a research institute, or a research position in industry—then academic awards, conference presentations, and publications. Assisted in training and selecting 20 US team members to compete at the 2008 International Physics..
For these and other reasons I was asked (by the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Belarus) to help found the International Sakharov College of Radioecology, in Minsk, Belarus and be the Chairman of its' International Advisory Committee (which position I held until 2001).
This has now become the (International Sakharov Environmental University) on the tenth anniversary of the opening (in May 2002) of this university, Dr.
Frantisek Janouch, from the Czech Republic and Sweden, gave an admonition to students (in Russian and in English) to think carefully whether they deserved to use the Sakharov name American Veterinary Medical Assn. Scientific report. Harvard University. Computation Laboratory. Information storage and retrieval. Scientific resources in the Scott Publications. Specialty album. Scott's United States 20th century blocks of four. Scott Publications. Special pages. Scottsdale high schools. Phoenix, Ariz..Frantisek Janouch, from the Czech Republic and Sweden, gave an admonition to students (in Russian and in English) to think carefully whether they deserved to use the Sakharov name.At the ninth anniversary (Sakharov's 80th birthday), I told the students my memories about Sakharov American Veterinary Medical Assn. Scientific report. Harvard University. Computation Laboratory. Information storage and retrieval. Scientific resources in the Scott Publications. Specialty album. Scott's United States 20th century blocks of four. Scott Publications. Special pages. Scottsdale high schools. Phoenix, Ariz..At the ninth anniversary (Sakharov's 80th birthday), I told the students my memories about Sakharov.I believe in putting my actions where my mouth is and followed closely the Russian and Ukrainian radiation accidents at Chernobyl in the Ukraine, and the accidents at the Techa River and the Mayak production complex in the Ural Mountains.This interest also led me to become editor of the English Translation of the Russian Journal Risk which is published by the Russian Medical Research Laboratory in Obninsk and is mainly about effects of Chernobyl.In 1987 I visited Chernobyl with a Chicago TV crew and the resulting film ( Back to Chernobyl) was released in late 1988.
I was among the first in the USA to emphasize the importance of the Russian radiation accidents in the 1950 - 60 period.In that period, for example, 2 million Curies of radioactive material were dumped into the upper reaches of the Techa River.The effects have been studied for 40 years by a dedicated group of physicians and scientists in the Urals Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM) in Chelyabinsk. See also public comment on EPA proposals to regulate DOE facilities, and tighten standards for uranium in drinking water.Nuclear waste disposal Starting in the late 1990s I was the spokesman for a group "Scientists for Secure Waste Storage" (SSWF) which supported the Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians who would like to store nuclear waste (temporarily) on their reservation.
Although after 7 years the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was ready to grant a license, the politicians in Utah, both the Governor and the Senators, have vowed to oppose it.They persuaded the US Bureau of Land Management to deny use of land to transfer casks from rail to road and to deny the right to make a long term agreement., and the Bureau of Indian Affairs to deny the right to make a long term agreement.SSWF sent in a brief supporting the Goshutes.The activity is in limbo for the last 8 years and it is unclear whether anyone can resurrect it.
More detail on some radiation issues is available in a separate page on this site and in a special (requested) report for the American Association of Physics Teachers (also available on this site).Managing a nuclear accident (and by extension other accidents)Those who favor new energy technologies argue that even if they are too expensive now, there will be a "learning curve" and they will become cheaper.Yet these same people object when I ask for a real study of the "forgetting curve" displayed by commercial nuclear power plant implementation.Nuclear power was cheap - cheaper than coal - in 1971.This statement is based upon actual bills by the reactor operator to the distributor of electricity - the busbar cost.
WHY IS IT NOW SO MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE? (Both capital cost and operating cost) The cost cannot be due to safety improvements.The main safety improvement is careful analysis according to Rasmussen's procedure in his landmark report in 1975 (Reactor Safety Study), and analysis is cheap.A large part is intransigent opposition by a segment of the population which has persuaded the politicians at every stage.Why do we let these intransigent members of the population control the discussion?It is vital to realize the distinction between Prompt deaths (Acute Radiation Sickness occurring within days) and delayed effects such as cancer.Prompt evacuation is only necessary to ensure that no one gets acute radiation sickness.
There are presently EMERGENCY PLANS on what to consider in an emergency including EVACUATION plans.In the thoughts of many in the public these are synonymous and evacuation should be automatic.This led to an unnessary evacuation at Three Mile Island and unnecessary deaths at Fukushima.In this connection look at the webpage on public hearings especially the last item./~wilson/Even the most exposed worker at Fukushima had an exposure and hence dose well below that giving Acute Radiation Sickness so there would have been time for a careful analysis of the situation.
I argue that at Fukushimaand undesirable.The calculated figures for future radiation cancers will never be fully verified by experiment yet there are definite deaths from unnecessary evacuation.( /%7Ewilson/publications/ )More important,when something untoward happens,the risk and benefits of any risk/benefit decision immediately change,and should be analyzed (preferably in a procedure discussed and maybe mandated in advance).The increase in dirty coal use with its concomitant air pollution in Tokyo and other cities also dramatically altered the risk equation.If that had been immediately taken into account, no evacuation wold have taken place at the Fukushima-daichi nuclear power plant area.
The Japanese earthquake and Tsunami has led to other tests of nuclear ideas.Why do we worry about disposal of radioactive materials which last only thousands of years yet mercury and arsenic last forever? Why is a secure land fill for ordinary waste one which is guaranteed for 30 years whereas one for nuclear waste must last 1,000,000 years?In the USA radiation standards for clean-up of radioactive material are far tighter than necessary and that has led to unconscionable delay in clean-up of weapons sites such as the Hanford reservation.Both I and mywife Andree Desiree Wilson have been concerned about the disadvantaged in the world all our lives.We were both happy (independently because we had not then met) that in 1945 America was known throughout the world for its optimism, its enthusiasm, its generosity even to the defeated countries (the Marshall Plan) and its responsibility to those who defended her (the GI Bill).By 2011 these have disappeared and as we contemplateAs noted above we had been helping through the years by a 501(c)3 charity the.
While this for helping on the arsenic problem, sending funds releases funds for general help to the poor.But as noted earlier I have felt unable to continue my work for the foundation and have resigned from the Presidency. We are now (in 2015) helping directly through Charitable Aid Foundation of America.Another financial fact raises another paradox.Although more people were killed in Sandy Hook CT IN 2013 by the rampage of a young man who took his mother's guns, than in the Boston Marathon bombings, the funds for helping the victims are in the other order ($32 million for the marathon bombing survivors vs.
A part of that is a result of the fact that compensation for a disabled person can far exceed compensation to the family of a dead one.This simple statement should be pondered by everyone.Is this what society wants? Other Public Issues - particularly legal Over the years I have testified at a number of publicto explain these issues.
For this work I was recognized by ALF with a "Lifetime Achievement" award presented in Washington DC in March 2013.
World Federation of Scientists I have often participated in meetings of the Ettore Majorana In situte of Scientific Culture in Erice, Sicily which is run by a brilliant but often controversial scientist Antonino (Nino) Zichichi.The scientific center he created in Erice is at the top of a 3000 foot hill nearby.I was (2001-2005) Chairman of the Permanent Energy Monitoring Panel which meets at Erice, Sicily (August 2003, August 2004, August 2005) and am still (2015) a member thereof.Unfortunately illness prevented my attandance in 2015.If you paid the fee online, your e-mail confirmation is your receipt.
If you paid by check, your cancelled check (or image sent by your bank) is your receipt.We do not send any other acknowledgment of payment.If payment is missing, we will contact you.Important note: Payments are tracked only by Harvard’s database.Please disregard any notification of payment status posted on the Common Application, Coalition Application, or Universal College Application website.
The $75 application processing fee can be paid online through the online application system (either the Common Application, the Coalition Application, or the Universal College Application).Please note that the Common Application, Coalition Application, and Universal Application websites are operated independently, and their respective offices are better able to assist you with specific logistical issues you may encounter while submitting the application forms or your fee through their sites.You may also send a check drawn on a US bank in US dollars to: Harvard College Admissions Cambridge, MA 02138 Please be sure to write the name and date of birth of the applicant on the fee.If the application fee presents a hardship for you or your family, the fee will be waived.Do not let the application fee prevent you from applying! There are a few ways to request a fee waiver.
You can easily request it within the Common Application, Coalition Application, Universal College Application, or simply email us as [email protected] .Yes, transfer students can receive an application fee waiver.Do not let the application fee prevent you from applying! In the spirit of our honor code, if the fee presents a hardship for you or your family, the fee will be waived.There are a few ways to request a fee waiver.You can easily request it within the Common Application, Coalition Application, Universal College Application, or simply email us as [email protected] .
The Common Application and the Coalition Application outline the indicators of economic need as follows, but if you do not meet any of these indicators, but would still like to request a fee waiver, please do not hesitate to email us at [email protected] .You have received a College Board or NACAC fee waiverYou have received or are eligible to receive an ACT or SAT testing fee waiverYou are enrolled in or are eligible to participate in the Federal Free or Reduced Price Lunch program (FRPL)Your annual family income falls within the Income Eligibility Guidelines set by the USDA Food and Nutrition ServiceYou are enrolled in a federal, state, or local program that aids students from low-income families (e., TRIO programs such as Upward Bound)Your family receives public assistanceYou live in federally subsidized public housing, a foster home, or are homelessYou are a ward of the state or an orphanYou can provide a supporting statement from a school official, college access counselor, financial aid officer, or community leaderThis step occurs while creating your application in the Common Application or Coalition Application.Students who qualify will automatically pass the payment screen upon submitting their application.
Requesting a fee waiver will not disadvantage you in any way.Do not let the application fee prevent you from applying! In the spirit of our honor code, if the fee presents a hardship for you or your family, the fee will be waived.There are a few ways to request a fee waiver.You can easily request it within the Common Application, Coalition Application, Universal College Application, or simply email us as [email protected] .The Common Application and the Coalition Application outline the indicators of economic need as follows, but if you do not meet any of these indicators, but would still like to request a fee waiver, please do not hesitate to email us.
You have received a College Board or NACAC fee waiver You have received or are eligible to receive an ACT or SAT testing fee waiver You are enrolled in or are eligible to participate in the Federal Free or Reduced Price Lunch program (FRPL) Your annual family income falls within the Income Eligibility Guidelines set by the USDA Food and Nutrition Service You are enrolled in a federal, state, or local program that aids students from low-income families (e., TRIO programs such as Upward Bound) Your family receives public assistance You live in federally subsidized public housing, a foster home, or are homeless You are a ward of the state or an orphan You can provide a supporting statement from a school official, college access counselor, financial aid officer, or community leader This step occurs while creating your application in the Common Application, Coalition Application, or Universal College Application.Students who qualify will automatically pass the payment screen upon submitting their application.Requesting a fee waiver will not disadvantage your application in any way.
Some students distinguish themselves for admission with their unusual academic promise through experience or achievements in study or research.Other students present compelling cases because they are more “well-rounded,” having contributed in many different ways to their schools or communities.Still other successful applicants are “well-lopsided” with demonstrated excellence in one particular endeavor.Some students bring perspectives formed by unusual personal circumstances or experiences.
Like many colleges, we seek to admit dynamic, talented, and diverse students who will contribute significantly to the education of their classmates.There is no single academic path we expect all students to follow, but the strongest applicants take the most rigorous secondary school curricula available to them.
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An ideal four-year preparatory program includes four years of English, with extensive practice in writing; four years of math; four years of science: biology, chemistry, physics, and an advanced course in one of these subjects; three years of history, including American and European history; and four years of one foreign language.You cannot receive credit for coursework completed before matriculation, but Harvard offers an Advanced Standing Program to entering students who meet certain standards on the College Board Advanced Placement (AP) examinations or who have earned the full International Baccalaureate Diploma with a grade of 7 on at least three Higher Level examinations.Admitted students with strong results on internationally recognized examinations, such as the GCE A-levels, Abitur, or French Baccalaureate, may submit their credentials to the Advanced Standing adviser for individual evaluation upon matriculation Is it possible to get a receipt for my application fee? May I apply to another college under its Regular Decision plan before I receive Harvard's decision on my Restrictive Early Action application? Yes. I am applying to colleges outside of the U.S. May I apply to them at the same time as I apply Early Action to Harvard?.
Admitted students with strong results on internationally recognized examinations, such as the GCE A-levels, Abitur, or French Baccalaureate, may submit their credentials to the Advanced Standing adviser for individual evaluation upon matriculation.
Visit the Advising Programs Office website for more information about Advanced Standing.Early Action It is impossible to predict individual admission decisions 31 Dec 2015 - Important Note: the foundational principles of my application are explored in detail in my How to Get Into Harvard guide. In this popular guide, Teacher Letter #1: AP Chemistry; Teacher Letter #2: AP English Lang; School Report; Principal Recommendation. Harvard With all this past us, let's get started..Early Action It is impossible to predict individual admission decisions.Past students whose applications were deferred have been admitted at various rates, often approximating the rate for Regular Decision candidates.Over the next few months, your application will be reviewed again, supplying another opportunity for eventual admission.
Further updates may enhance your prospects, although in most cases, the essential details already are on file with the Admissions Committee razestudios.net/thesis-proposal/how-to-buy-a-college-contemporary-political-culture-thesis-proposal-standard-95-pages-26125-words-3-days-100-plagiarism-free.
Further updates may enhance your prospects, although in most cases, the essential details already are on file with the Admissions Committee.
Additional information should be limited to significant developments in your high school career.Despite what you may hear or read elsewhere, no; this is wholly unnecessary.Our decisions are made by a committee of admission officers, including faculty members, no single one of whom is responsible for shaping the outcome of deliberations.You may apply in the fall to any institution under its Regular Decision program.
After students receive notification from Harvard’s Early Action program in mid-December, they are free to apply to any institution under any plan, including binding programs such as Early Decision II.However, you may apply Early Action to any public college/university or to foreign universities.There are no score cutoffs, and we do not admit “by the numbers.” For the SAT, we will review your highest test scores in each section across test dates and any other scores you choose to share with us.
For the ACT, we will evaluate your highest composite score and any other scores you choose to share with us.We take into account your educational background when reviewing your scores.You are free to use the College Board’s Score Choice option and/or the similar option offered by ACT when applying to Harvard, but you do not need to.The majority of students admitted represent a range of scores from roughly 600 to 800 on each section of the SAT as well as on the SAT Subject Tests.The 25th percentile for admitted students on the SAT is about 2100; the 75th percentile is about 2350.
We regard test results as helpful indicators of academic ability and achievement when considered thoughtfully among many other factors.We require all applicants to complete the SAT Reasoning Test or the ACT Test with Writing and we normally require two SAT Subject Tests.If you choose to submit Subject Tests, it is more useful to choose only one mathematics test rather than two.Similarly, if your first language is not English, a Subject Test in your first language may be less helpful.For information about the SATs, consult , for the ACT .
We value predicted A-level and IB results along with any information that helps us form a complete picture of your academic interests and strengths.However, results from these examinations cannot substitute for our required admissions testing.Process There is no formula for gaining admission to Harvard.Academic accomplishment in high school is important, but the Admissions Committee also considers many other criteria, such as community involvement, leadership and distinction in extracurricular activities, and personal qualities and character.We rely on teachers, counselors, and alumni to share information with us about an applicant’s strength of character, his or her ability to overcome adversity, and other personal qualities.
No student with a bachelor’s degree or other first university degree from any other university, whether American or foreign, is eligible for admission to Harvard College.Students interested in continuing their studies beyond the bachelor’s degree might wish to consider one of the 10 Harvard University graduate schools.The Harvard College Admissions Office is independent of these schools and their admissions policies.We have worked hard for many years to learn about schools around the world.Our careful study of different schools, curricula and educational systems is augmented by information we receive directly from schools, extensive personal communication with school personnel, and the interview reports we receive from our alumni, who meet thousands of applicants to Harvard each year.
We can always learn more, so we welcome information students think might be helpful to the Admissions Committee in understanding their accomplishments in their school communities.While we understand there are differences in the overall strengths of secondary schools, we are most interested in how well applicants have taken advantage of available resources.In the end, we admit the student not the secondary school they attend.A strong knowledge of English is essential for successful study at Harvard, including the ability to understand and express thoughts quickly and clearly.
We require the results of the SAT or ACT (with writing) and two SAT Subject Tests for all candidates.The SAT English Language Proficiency Test (ELPT) is not acceptable.Students are not required to submit the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) unless the SAT exams are not available in their current location.Candidates whose native language is not English should not take the SAT Subject Test in their native language to fulfill one of their two required tests.Teachers who know you well and who have taught you in academic subjects (preferably in the final two years of secondary school) typically will provide us with the most valuable testimony.
Whenever possible, teachers should tell us about your non-academic interests and personal qualities as well as academic potential.Some introductory courses as well as several other popular courses have large enrollments.Yet, the median class size at Harvard is 12.Of the nearly 1,300 courses offered last fall, for example, more than 1,000 of them enrolled 20 or fewer students.In addition to weekly office hours, students often spend time with their professors before and after class.There are also many occasions when professors take meals in Harvard’s 12 residential dining halls; attend gatherings in the residences of Faculty Deans, who are themselves Harvard faculty members; and participate in other programs and special events.Campus LIfe Harvard has a comprehensive public safety program that includes a full campus police force, a walking escort service, a campus-wide shuttle service, emergency phones, lighted pathways and a computer-card key system operating in all residential buildings.Read Harvard’s “Playing It Safe” handbook at the Harvard University Police Department website.
Harvard guarantees housing for all four years.
Freshmen live in one of the 17 dormitories in or adjacent to historic Harvard Yard.Self-selected groups of students are assigned to one of 12 residential Houses for the final three years of undergraduate study.About 350 to 500 students live in a House, each of which includes its own dining hall, library, advising staff, and many other resources.You must live in Harvard housing your first year at the College.
A very small percentage of students choose to live off-campus as upperclassmen.Most students and alumni consider the House system one of the hallmarks of their Harvard experiences.Considering the diversity of student backgrounds, interests and talents, Harvard’s residential program enhances the degree to which students learn from one another.Most freshman dorms have suites for three to six students.Suites contain from two to four bedrooms and a common room.
A few have their own baths, though most share a bathroom with other suites.The Freshman Dean’s Office assigns students to suites rather than to particular bedrooms, and in almost any suite students should expect to share a bedroom for at least part of the first year.Some dorms contain doubles, usually one fairly large room with a shared bath.Freshmen students all eat together in Annenberg Hall.During sophomore through senior year, students typically eat in the dining hall located within their Houses, although students can choose to eat at other House dining halls as well.
There are more than 400 student-run organizations at Harvard, among them dozens of publications, five orchestras, an extensive community service program, more than 40 intercollegiate athletic teams, and a broad assortment of other activities—artistic, musical, political, and social.We encourage and support extracurricular opportunities as these provide important settings for personal growth and friendships.Visit the Office of Student Life website for more information about extracurriculars.Courses You may cross-register in courses offered at MIT, which is a 10-minute trip from Harvard Yard.
You may also enroll in graduate-level courses at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences as well as at many of Harvard’s professional schools.General In our liberal arts program, students are broadly educated in the social sciences, the natural sciences and the humanities, as well as trained in a particular academic field of specialization called a concentration.Students take one course in each of the eight areas of the General Education Program, which is designed to broaden each student’s intellectual perspective, while selecting a field of concentration from more than forty academic departments.Students will usually take about half of their courses in their concentration, one-quarter in the General Education Program, and one-quarter student-chosen electives.The only specific course that is required for all students is a one-semester writing course, although each department has certain courses that a student must take to earn a degree in that field.
Programs are, therefore, quite individualized for each student.Whatever a student’s curricular choices, every undergraduate learns to read, write, and think critically — skills important to any endeavor.For detailed information, consult the course catalog at .The University sponsors a comprehensive public safety program that includes a full campus police force, a walking escort service, a campus-wide shuttle service, emergency phones, lighted pathways and a computer-card key system operating in all freshman and most other residences.Read Harvard’s “Playing It Safe” handbook at the Harvard University Police Department website.
Harvard College is the “original” Harvard, founded in 1636 as the oldest institution of higher education in the United States.Harvard College offers a four-year undergraduate, liberal arts program for students seeking their first degree.There are about 6,500 undergraduates at the College, with nearly equal numbers of men and women.In addition to Harvard College, Harvard University includes 10 graduate and professional schools, all of which offer programs for students who already hold their first degrees and seek advanced training in their fields through master’s or doctoral programs.All 10 graduate and professional schools maintain their own admissions offices and teaching faculties, and they are run independently of Harvard College.
For information about Harvard’s graduate programs, please contact these schools’ admissions offices directly.Life After Harvard Graduate programs are separate from and independent of Harvard College, and each makes its own admissions decisions.Yet Harvard College is almost always the best-represented undergraduate institution at Harvard’s graduate schools.In some programs, particularly at Harvard Medical School, foreign citizens may have a smaller representation.Our graduates enjoy an extraordinarily high rate of success receiving job offers and admission to graduate and professional schools.
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Resident tutors in each of the twelve residential Houses assist students applying to graduate schools and fellowship programs.The Office of Career Services offers all undergraduates a range of job and internship counseling and placement.Foreign citizens should be aware that some special policies pertain should they seek employment in the U The State of Small Business Lending Harvard Business School.Foreign citizens should be aware that some special policies pertain should they seek employment in the U.
All transfer students who are admitted are eligible for on-campus housing.Students are not required to live on campus, though nearly all undergraduate students live on campus and House life is an integral part of the Harvard College community and student experience.Process Harvard College does not accept AP, IB or SAT credits for transfer, therefore only those courses taken at your current institution while enrolled full-time will be considered for transfer 22 Jul 2014 - Of America's 28.7 million small businesses, half of all small firms are home- based, and 23 million are sole proprietorships. The remaining 5.7 million small firms have employees, and can be divided up into Main Street mom and pop businesses, small- and medium-sized suppliers to larger corporations, .
Process Harvard College does not accept AP, IB or SAT credits for transfer, therefore only those courses taken at your current institution while enrolled full-time will be considered for transfer.
As a result, those credits accepted by your current institution from standardized tests are not included in the maximum 16 transferrable course limit under our criteria of eligibility.
Standardized test scores are only retained in our system for the year of application; therefore the scores will need to be reported directly from the testing agency again for your new application.Yes! If paying the application fee would cause a hardship for your family, please request a fee waiver.You or your guidance counselor may write a short letter asking us to waive your fee.Receiving a fee waiver has no effect on admissions chances.
Please use the following e-mail address: [email protected] to submit your application fee waiver request.Testing A strong knowledge of English is essential for successful study at Harvard, including the ability to understand and express thoughts quickly and clearly.We require the results of the SAT or ACT (with writing) and two SAT Subject Tests for all candidates.The SAT English Language Proficiency Test (ELPT) is not acceptable.Students are not required to submit the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) unless the SAT exams are not available in their current location.
Candidates whose native language is not English should not take the SAT Subject Test in their native language to fulfill one of their two required tests.These standardized tests are now given in almost all countries.We realize you may have to travel some distance or plan for testing long in advance, but these test results are required tools in our analysis of applications.In our competitive applicant pool, students lacking these test results are usually denied admission.Foreign students in one of the very few countries where the SAT is not available (for example, China) may submit alternative testing such as the Graduate Record Examination.
For more information about the GRE, consult .Students in such countries should also take the TOEFL.We will not be officially sending out re-application instructions until mid-February and will be processing applications along our normal timeline, meaning that we will not be tracking submitted materials until late February.Completing your application early will have no impact on your award; please complete your application by the May 1st deadline.
You should still complete your application as instructed.As always, if there are special circumstances of which you would like us to be aware, please include a detailed letter with the materials you submit to IDOC so that your circumstances can be reviewed along with the rest of your required application materials.While you are using the same taxes, it is for a new application cycle and a new academic year and we no longer have access to last year’s data.You will still need to submit copies of your actual 2016 tax returns and W-2 forms to IDOC.
CSS Profile Once the PROFILE has been submitted, you will not be able to make changes.We understand that the numbers on the Profile may be estimates and will update them with your actual taxes when those arrive through IDOC.If you have major changes or corrections to make beyond those that will be automatically updated by your tax returns, you can print the pages that need changing, write the changes on them, and upload them through the College Board IDOC Service.The CSS Profile is available to students from nearly every country and nationality.The College Board is unable to process payments from a small number of countries, and so students from these countries may not be able to submit the CSS Profile.
If this is the case, please follow this alternate set of instructions to apply for financial aid.FAFSA Fee Waiver Harvard does not charge a financial aid application fee (we do charge an admissions application fee; if you need to contact the Admissions Office about an admissions fee waiver, you can do so here.) If you are a US Citizen or Permanent Resident, or Canadian Citizen, you will be required to file the CSS PROFILE, an application independent of Harvard but that will normally require the payment of a fee.You will automatically be evaluated for a waiver of the PROFILE application fee ($9 registration fee plus $16 per college selected) at the point that you submit your PROFILE data to the College Board.The College Board is wholly responsible for the PROFILE and will grant a waiver of their fees if they deem it appropriate.
You can contact the College Board to learn more by calling 1-800-239-5888.Please follow these alternate instructions for applying through our paper process.Other For prospective students, we cannot verify receipt of any information until after a student is admitted.If you are missing financial aid materials at the time of admission, we will notify you immediately.Current students can check their account where information is updated daily.
If you are a prospective student and completed your application by the deadline, then you will receive an award decision in your acceptance mailing.If you missed the application deadline, an award decision will be completed as soon as possible and in the order it is received.If you are a current student, award decisions will be posted to your d account by July 1st.If you missed the application deadline, an award decision will be completed during the remainder of the summer and in the order it is received.For prospective students, given the tremendous volume of material sent to our office , we are unable to confirm receipt.
Rest assured that if we discover we are missing necessary financial aid application materials or have any questions we will be in contact with you (by email or phone) after the student is admitted.Current and admitted students can always check the status of their application on d.If you are undocumented you are eligible for financial aid from Harvard.
Harvard makes no distinction based on citizenship in the financial aid process or in the amount of aid for which students are eligible.
Undocumented students do not need to file a FAFSA since they are not eligible to apply for federal aid.Prospective students should go here for financial aid application instructions and current students should go here.IDOC IDOC is a service provided by the College Board which we use to collect and scan documents.Applicants who fill out the CSS PROFILE form are contacted by the College Board with instructions on how to submit taxes and other relevant forms to IDOC.Please allow five or more business days for processing.Remember that the staff at IDOC are only trained to identify basic US tax documents and these are the only ones that will show up on IDOC’s tracking.If you have read through our application instructions and submitted what we ask for, then you should not worry about whether IDOC has been able to correctly identify and track your documents.Our staff will review the IDOC materials for all admitted students and current undergraduates to make sure your submissions fulfill our requirements and will reach out if there is anything more we need.
Taxes If your parents are not required to file a federal or national tax return, they should send a signed statement listing all sources and annual amounts of income for their household.Each non-filer must print and complete a tax non-filer statement and submit it to IDOC with the rest of your application materials.IDOC is the best method for sending us documents, and is required for all US tax returns.IDOC is available to all students who submit a CSS Profile, whether residing in the US or abroad.Those students were unable to file a CSS Profile and who requested alternate instructions may send their foreign tax returns directly to us by mail or fax as directed by our alternate instructions.
Please be sure that anything you send directly to us includes your full applicant name, applicant year, and some other unique identifier (school, birth date, etc.) For prospective students, we will be happy to accept your completed application for financial aid whenever it arrives.We do ask, however, that you send your 2016 tax returns to IDOC as soon as possible after they become available.You should not submit 2015 documents unless you are specifically asked for them.If you receive a positive admissions decision and still have not been able to send your 2016 tax returns, please be in touch with us by phone after you receive your admissions decision.
For current students, please send a copy of the IRS extension application to IDOC with the rest of your application materials.Please note that we will be unable to calculate your financial aid award until we receive the actual 2016 tax return.Divorced/Separated If you filed the online PROFILE, your noncustodial parent should complete a Noncustodial Parent’s PROFILE online.After you file the custodial parent PROFILE, you will receive instructions from the College Board to send to your noncustodial parent explaining how to complete this process.If you are an international student and chose to file the paper Financial Statement for Students from Foreign Countries, please have your noncustodial parent to complete and submit a separate form along with their most recent tax return or wage statement.
Yes, your custodial parent should file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) and the CSS PROFILE Application, and your non-custodial parent should complete the Noncustodial Parent’s PROFILE and both should submit their taxes.We feel strongly that both parents have an obligation to support you, and a divorce or separation does not change that obligation.We look at each case individually, and we make every effort to be sensitive to particular family circumstances when deciding how much to ask from each parent.If either parent is remarried, financial information about their new spouse and dependents, if any, should be provided.In this way we obtain the fullest possible picture of your financial background and can make the fairest judgment about your need for assistance.
If we have received financial information from both your parents, the figure listed as “parent contribution” on your award letter will be the combined figure for your parent 1 and parent 2, determined by doing a separate need analysis for each.It is up to you and your parents to decide how to divide the responsibility for paying the termbills.If you are unable to ask a parent to send in their financial information, please fill out a Parent Information Sheet including a letter from a third party and any additional documentation as appropriate.Given that every family situation is unique, we review parent and household information on a case-by-case basis to determine what documentation and paperwork is appropriate for that student to provide to us in an effort to be as generous as possible with our financial aid assessment.Since we do not review financial information until a positive admissions decision has been made, we cannot make a judgment call on the documentation required until that point in the process.
Please rest assured that our financial aid application deadlines are flexible and that we will be in direct touch with the student, should a positive admissions decision be made and the financial aid application is incomplete.Missing Documents Please visit the College Scholarship Service web site to complete the PROFILE or call 1-800-626-9795.The Harvard College CSS code number is 3434.Once your CSS PROFILE has been processed (allow 7 days for CSS to process), you will receive an email from the College Board’s Institutional Documentation Service (IDOC) providing you with instructions on how to submit your tax forms and any other supplemental forms that may be required.Remember, it is important to provide your Social Security Number, if you have one, when you register for CSS PROFILE; Harvard will use this unique number to identify your data before loading any electronic records.
NOTE: If you are a returning student and do not have a Social Security Number, please provide your Harvard ID number in the SSN field when you register for the CSS PROFILE.
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If you are a prospective/entering student and do not have a Social Security Number, please be sure to provide the same first, last and middle name, as well as birthdate on the CSS PROFILE that you provided on your Harvard admissions application.To be fair to all our students, we can base our financial aid decisions only on ability and not willingness to pay, and a decision to attend Harvard must be made by you and your parents.Please call the Financial Aid Office to discuss this further if you have questions or concerns 18 Oct 2016 - Richard Wilson, the physicist, may be found most days in Jefferson Laboratory of Physics room 257 at Harvard University. A page of photographs My view, expressed frequently in the last 40 years is that the future lies with American Jews and the influence they have on the government of Israel. They are .Please call the Financial Aid Office to discuss this further if you have questions or concerns.
If you are unable to ask a parent to send in their financial information, please fill out a Parent Information Sheet including a letter from a third party and any additional documentation as appropriate.
Given that every family situation is unique, we review parent and household information on a case-by-case basis to determine what documentation and paperwork is appropriate for that student to provide to us in an effort to be as generous as possible with our financial aid assessment.Since we do not review financial information until a positive admissions decision has been made, we cannot make a judgment call on the documentation required until that point in the process Best website to write a college precision production trades paper us nbsp.Since we do not review financial information until a positive admissions decision has been made, we cannot make a judgment call on the documentation required until that point in the process.Please rest assured that our financial aid application deadlines are flexible and that we will be in direct touch with the student, should a positive admissions decision be made and the financial aid application is incomplete razestudios.net/research-paper/best-websites-to-purchase-an-applied-mathematics-research-paper-high-school-premium-writing.Please rest assured that our financial aid application deadlines are flexible and that we will be in direct touch with the student, should a positive admissions decision be made and the financial aid application is incomplete.Jobs The term-time job expectation listed on your award letter is the amount of earnings during the academic year that we expect you to contribute toward your college costs.
All earnings are paid directly to you, and it will be your responsibility to determine what portion of your earnings will be used towards billed (tuition, fees, room & Board, etc.
) and/or non-billed (travel and personal expenses, etc.Students can work while at Harvard, but only some students are eligible for the Federal Work Study Program (FWSP).Your financial aid letter will designate whether you can work in a job funded by FWSP or need to focus your job search on positions not funded by the program.Please note: You may request a student loan to replace or supplement part or all of a job expectation (term-time or FWSP).
To request a loan, use the Loan Request Form.However, all students, international or American, who demonstrate financial need will have a student term-time contribution as part of their financial aid package, which they can typically meet with a job requiring about 10-12 hours per week.immigration regulations allow foreign nationals to work on-campus only, and they restrict the amount of time a foreign student can spend working while attending college.Jobs are plentiful and are often interesting and relevant to academic interests.Employment opportunities range from dining hall duties to work in the University’s libraries, laboratories, and offices.Students have also earned money on campus as bartenders, teaching assistants, sportswriters, computer programmers, lifeguards and research assistants, to cite a few examples.
Working eight to twelve hours on average per week, most students find that they can work, excel academically, and participate in a range of extracurricular activities.Read more at our Student Employment Office website.Your aid package will indicate if you are eligible for the Federal Work-Study Program (FWSP) also known as “work-study.” Many aid packages list “Term-Time Job” as opposed to FWSP.This means that you are encouraged to find a job to help cover your costs although you are not eligible to work in FWSP-only jobs.
There are many non-FWSP jobs available on campus as well, and last year close to 65% of all Harvard students chose to work during the year.FWSP is a wage subsidy program designed to expand your range of employment opportunities both on and off campus.FWSP is a federal financial aid program and thus it is not an option for international students or students who are not receiving federal aid.The FWSP wage-subsidy allows employers to hire students at wages they might not otherwise be able to afford because the federal government will pay roughly 70% of student earnings.Visit the Student Employment website to log into the jobs database to look for FWSP and non-FWSP jobs with your HUID and PIN at .
Loans Many of our families find parent loans to be a useful tool for spreading the cost of education over a number of years.Parents may borrow up to the full cost of education, less any other financial aid.Parent loans are not based on financial need, and there are no income restrictions or penalties for early repayment.Harvard processes PLUS loans directly with the U.Department of Education through the Federal Direct Lending Program, without the need for banks and for-profit lenders.However, your financing options are not limited to the parent PLUS loan; you and your family may borrow from any lender you choose.Outside Awards A large percentage of each entering freshman class receives one or more outside awards from national or local organizations.When adjusting the Harvard financial aid package, 100% of the total outside award amount is first deducted from your job expectation, and then from your summer earnings expectation, up to the total amount of those expectations.If the total of outside awards exceeds the combined amount of your job and summer earnings expectations, that excess amount is deducted from the Harvard Scholarship.
Since outside awards are additional resources that help to meet need, they may not be used to replace your parents’ contribution or other expected family resource.For example, if you were originally offered a financial aid package with a $3,000 job, a summer earnings expectation of $1,600, and a $15,000 Harvard Scholarship and subsequently receive a $2,000 National Merit award and $2,000 from the Elks Club, then we will reduce your term-time job expectation to $0 and your summer expectation to $600.Only if outside awards exceeded $4,600 would they have any impact upon the amount of Harvard Scholarship.If you expect to receive an outside scholarship that is not reflected on your award letter, including tuition benefits from parents’ employers, you should report it to the Financial Aid Office by visiting the Outside Award Reporting System (OARS).We will adjust the financial aid package to reflect the receipt of additional resources.
If you are receiving financial aid and are approved for academic credit during the academic year at another institution, your aid should be available to help cover your costs.The Office of International Education (OIE) determines your program is eligible for academic credit, and the Financial Aid Office (FAO) will work with you to determine the amount of aid you are eligible to receive for your study.As with your Harvard budget, your study abroad budget will include a combination of billed and non-billed costs.We construct the budget from the program information that you submit on your Supplement, and these costs will include tuition and fees, room and board, and a standard allowance for personal expenses and books.In addition, we will include a standard allowance for air travel to the area of the world in which you will be studying and will include any additional non-discretionary expenses (e.
visa/passport costs, medical expenses for required shots) that are specific to your program.Lastly, you will continue to be billed for the Harvard Student Services Fee during the semester(s) that you are abroad, so this will be built into your budget.You will need to get a Consortium Agreement completed if you are attending a program affiliated with a U.
Please have this form completed as soon as possible before you go abroad.You do not need this form if you are going on a Harvard program or direct enrolling abroad.The Office of International Education (OIE) holds evening study breaks hosted by OIE student advisers to provide budget support.These student advisers have just returned from some of the most popular destinations such at the UK, France, and Spain, and will be able to help you in thinking about your budget.
For more information, please contact the OIE.Drop-in hours for budgeting questions are available at the Financial Aid Office (FAO) and the OIE on a walk-in basis to assist students with completing the Study Abroad Supplement.If you would like help with your budget, please bring photocopies of your program descriptions showing anticipated costs as well as your Study Abroad Supplement with you to one of the workshops.Please check the Study Abroad section of our website for the latest information on times and dates of the workshops.Complete the Study Abroad Supplement and return it, along with all supporting documents substantiating your budget, to the FAO.
If you are planning to study abroad in the fall semester or for the full academic year, the form is due May 1st.If you are planning to study in the spring semester, the form is due October 31st.Be sure to attach photocopies of your program budget to the Supplement.Please submit the Supplement by these deadlines, even if you do not know all the answers to the questions, as you can always update it later.While You Are Abroad The Financial Aid Office takes the anticipated financial aid for the semester(s) and subtracts any balance due to your Harvard term bill, including any back balance from the previous semester.
The remaining amount will be refunded to you and you will be expected to make payments to the study abroad program as required.We encourage you to email your financial aid officer.While we do our best to construct an appropriate budget for you in advance based on the information provided by your program, we recognize that you may encounter higher costs during your time abroad.It is definitely to your benefit to contact your financial aid officer before relying on credit cards to help meet the difference in your expenses.We may be able to offer you additional scholarship or a subsidized loan to help with these unanticipated costs.
We want you to have an enjoyable and enriching study abroad experience.Although you may be very far away from Cambridge, the Financial Aid Office is still here as a resource to you, and we hope that you will be in touch with our office if we can be of any help to you.While studying full-time and working towards your degree, your loans should not go into repayment.If they do, you need to provide written enrollment verification directly from your program either to the Federal Government (for your Direct Loan) or to Harvard (for your Perkins and/or Harvard Loans).You can download the deferment forms from the Student Loan Office.
Do not ignore these notices or your loans may go into default.The Harvard University Archives are maintained by the Harvard University Library system and are a great resource to access Harvard’s historical records.Harvard is perhaps best-known because of its enduring history of innovation in education.But even die-hard Harvard buffs are not likely to know all of these Harvard firsts and historical snippets.Year 1607 John Harvard, the College’s future namesake and first benefactor, was baptized at St.
Saviour’s Church (now Southwark Cathedral), London.1635 1636 First College in American colonies founded.The “Great and General Court of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England” approves £400 for the establishment of “a schoale or colledge” later to be called “Harvard.” 1637 The Great and General Court orders the “colledge” established one year earlier to be located at Newetowne (renamed “Cambrige” in 1638).Late 1637 or early 1638 The Overseers purchased the College’s first piece of real estate: a house and an acre of land from Goodman Peyntree.
Located on the southern edge of “Cow-yard Row” and soon distinguished as the “College Yard,” this tract became the nucleus of present-day Harvard Yard and remains at the southern end of the Old Yard (the area west of Thayer, University, and Weld halls).1638 1639 In recognition of John Harvard’s bequest, the Great and General Court orders “that the colledge agreed upon formerly to bee built at Cambridg shalbee called Harvard Colledge.” 1640 1642 1649 The Town of Cambridge and President Henry Dunster give Harvard the “College Farm” at Billerica, Mass., which paid annual rent to the College until the farm was sold in 1775.1650 1653 John Sassamon, a Massachuset Indian, became the first known Native American to study at Harvard (probably for a term or so).
A disciple of Indian Bible translator John Eliot, Sassamon later became a scribe and interpreter to Wampanoag Chief Metacom (a.In 1675, Sassamon was murdered as an English informant, touching off King Philip’s War, New England’s most devastating conflict between Natives and newcomers.