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Online pharmacy Comprehensive Review of Pharmacology for the Anesthesia Written Boards.On this If you need help with essay, homework, dissertation or any other kind of paper, please visit.Electronic Journal of Biotechnology is an international scientific electronic journal, which publishes papers from all areas related to Biotechnology.It covers from molecular biology and the chemistry of biological processes to aquatic and earth environmental aspects, computational applications, policy and ethical issues directly related to Biotechnology.

The journal provides an effective way to publish research and review articles and short communications, video material, animation sequences and 3D are also accepted to support and enhance articles.The articles will be examined by a scientific committee and anonymous evaluators and published every two months in HTML and PDF formats (January 15th , March 15th, May 15th, July 15th, September 15th, November 15th).The following areas are covered in the Journal: • Animal Biotechnology Article types Contributions falling into the following categories will be considered for publication: Original research papers, reviews and short communications.Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when making your submission.

Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from this list.

In the following paragraphs you will find a brief description of each contribution.Research These articles present original research and address a clearly stated specific hypothesis or question.Papers should provide novel approaches and new insights into the problem addressed.Manuscripts should be 3000 to 5000 words in length and they should have at least 15 references.These articles should include: Introduction: It should be brief and limited to the definition of the problem, the aims and purposes of the research and its relation with other studies in the field.

Also the working hypothesis must be clearly stated.Materials and methods: It should include relevant details on the experimental design and techniques so that the experiments can be repeated.Results: Results should be clearly presented.Tables and figures should only be included if required to fully understand the data.Discussion: The aim of this section is the interpretation of the results and their relation to the existing knowledge.

The contribution to Biotechnology must be clearly stated.The information given in any part of the text may be cited but not repeated in the Discussion Section.Alternatively Results and Discussion can be presented in one section.Acknowledgments: The acknowledgments of the contributions of colleagues can be stated in this section.Financial support: The acknowledgments for financial support should be cited here.

For stylistics details, please refer to PREPARATION below.Review Review articles must be authored by experts in the field area.They are an attempt by one or more authors to sum up the current state of the knowledge on a particular topic.Ideally, the author searches for everything relevant to the topic, and then sorts it all out into a coherent view of the "state of the art" as it now stands and promotes a personal view on the subject.Review articles should have at least 80 references and they should have between 4000 and 6000 words in length.

Review articles should inform about: the main researchers working in the field; recent major advances and discoveries; significant gaps in the research; current debates; future directions.They include an abstract, an introduction that outlines the main theme, brief subheadings, and an outline of important unresolved questions.For stylistics details, please refer to PREPARATION below.Short communications A short communication is a concise, but independent report representing a significant contribution to biotechnology.Short communication is not intended to publish preliminary results.

Only if these results are of exceptional interest and are particularly topical and relevant will be considered for publication.It should be 3000 words in length, and could include two figures or tables.The text should be divided into the following sections: introduction, experimental (or theoretical), results, and discussion.Results and discussion sections may be combined.

For stylistics details, please refer to PREPARATION below.Archives Ethics in publishing Human and animal rights If the work involves the use of human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals.Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects.The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.

Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals (NIH Publications No.8023, revised 1978) and the authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.Declaration of interest All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work.Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1.A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind).If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'.This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted.Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records.It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.Submission declaration and verification All submissions should be accompanied by a cover letter that includes a brief overview of the manuscript and the corresponding author contact information including full name, e-mail address, phone number, and postal address.

It should also specify the number of display items (figures and tables), the number of attachments (manuscript, figures supplementary information if any), and their formats.

It must include a statement indicating that the article has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see /sharingpolicy); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out; and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.To verify originality, all articles are checked by the originality detection service Similarity :// /editors/plagdetect.You can find a template cover letter at: / Changes to authorship Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study.Modifications to authorship are not allowed, this policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of submitted manuscripts.

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Copyright Upon acceptance of an article by the journal, authors will be asked to transfer the copyright to Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, which is committed to maintain the electronic access to the journal and to administer a policy of fair control and ensure the widest possible dissemination of the information.

The author can use the article for academic purposes, stating clearly the following: "Published in Electronic Journal of Biotechnology at DOI: XXX".TheLicense Agreement must be submitted as a signed scanned copy to [email protected]Get writing assistance anthropology lab report Standard single spaced Custom writing. | 10.12.2017| 108|   How to get writing assistance ecology lab report 48 hours double spaced Writing from scratch high quality. | 05.12.2017| 131|   Best website to write engineering lab report British US Letter Size 1 hour high quality..TheLicense Agreement must be submitted as a signed scanned copy to [email protected] .

All authors must send a copy of this document.Elsevier supports responsible sharing Role of the funding source You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication How to purchase a engineering laboratory report quality Academic Harvard double spaced A4 (British/European).Elsevier supports responsible sharing Role of the funding source You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated How to purchase a engineering laboratory report quality Academic Harvard double spaced A4 (British/European).

If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Publication charges Papers accepted for publication are subjected to a publication charge of US$1,100 for the first 15 typewritten pages, including figures and tables (file type: ms word; page size: letter; margins: 2,5; font type: Arial; font size: 12; interline: single space).Extra pages are U$100 each, beginning with the 16th page.We will continue as an open access journal and the submission of manuscripts is free.In order to proceed to payment please click here.

Open access Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access.This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication.The journal is under a creative commons attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0/) Elsevier Publishing Campus The Elsevier Publishing Campus ( ) is an online platform offering free lectures, interactive training and professional advice to support you in publishing your research.

The College of Skills training offers modules on how to prepare, write and structure your article and explains how editors will look at your paper when it is submitted for publication.Use these resources, and more, to ensure that your submission will be the best that you can make it.Language (usage and editing services) Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop.Authors may be requested to check their manuscript with a Professional English Language Service prior to evaluation.

Submission Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files.The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication.

All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.Submit your article Referees Please suggest at least four internationally recognized researchers as referees with their full name, affiliation and email address.We recommend that at least one of them should be a member of the editorial board of the Electronic Journal of Biotechnology (for a list of board members see /locate/ejbt).GenBank/DNA sequence linking DNA sequences and GenBank Accession numbers: Many Elsevier journals cite "gene accession numbers" in their running text and footnotes.Gene accession numbers refer to genes or DNA sequences about which further information can be found in the database at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine.

Elsevier authors wishing to enable other scientists to use the accession numbers cited in their papers via links to these sources, should type this information in the following manner: For each and every accession number cited in an article, authors should type the accession number in bold text.Letters in the accession number should always be capitalized.This combination of letters and format will enable Elsevier's typesetters to recognize the relevant texts as accession numbers and add the required link to GenBank's sequences.AI631510, BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no.Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers used very carefully.An error in a letter or number can result in a dead link.In the final version of the printed article, the accession number text will not appear bold or underlined (see Example 2 below).

AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228, a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no.BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no.In the final version of the electronic copy, the accession number text will be linked to the appropriate source in the NCBI databases enabling readers to go directly to that source from the article.

Peer review This journal operates a single blind review process.All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal.Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper.The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles.More information on types of peer review.Use of word processing software It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used.The text should be in single-column format.Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible.Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article.

In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words.However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc.When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row.The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier).Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text.

See also the section on Electronic artwork below.To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.LaTeX You are recommended to use the Elsevier article class to prepare your manuscript and BibTeX to generate your bibliography.Our LaTeX site has detailed submission instructions, templates and other information.Subdivision - numbered sections Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections.

(the abstract is not included in section numbering).Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'.

Any subsection may be given a brief heading.Each heading should appear on its own separate line.For details on structure revise the section Article types above.Essential title page information • Title.Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems.Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.Where the family name may be ambiguous (e., a double name), please indicate this clearly.Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names.Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address.Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and the e-mail address of each author.Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, and also post-publication.If possible, indicate an alternative e-mail for contact.Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

The Corresponding author is responsible that every coauthor has contributed to the ms and has accepted to publish the manuscript.

If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name.The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address.Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.Abstract The abstract of the manuscript should not exceed 250 words and must be structured into separate sections: Background, the context and purpose of the study; Results, the main findings; Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.

In the case of review articles, the abstract should be submitted as one section.Keywords Authors must provide between four and eleven keywords, which must not be part of the title of the paper.Also Keywords will be added in order to improve manuscript visibility.Abbreviations Define abbreviations that are not standard the first time they are mentioned.Abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there.

Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.Acknowledgements and financial support Indicate Acknowledgments and Financial support in separate sections at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise.List in acknowledgments those individuals who provided help during the research (e., providing language or writing assistance, or proof reading the article, etc.

Formating of funding sources List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grant numbers xxxx, yyyy ; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA grant number zzzz ; and the United States Institutes of Peace grant number aaaa .It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards.When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.If no funding has been provided for the research, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Nomenclature and units Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI) ( /Pubs/SP330/ ).If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.Math formulae Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images.Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.In principle, variables are to be presented in italics.Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).References For original articles (research, short communications), at least 75% of the references must be from the Web of Science Core Collection and at the same time from the last decade.

Also the DOI number must be included at the end of each reference.Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa).References in abstract should be avoided.Unpublished results; personal communications and thesis are not allowed.Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed.

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Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.Web references can be listed separately (e., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list The Journal of Physical Chemistry (JPC) Letters is devoted to reporting new and original   Submission of Manuscripts • Cover Letter • Assistance with English Language Editing • Review Process • Just   General Information • Reproducibility of Results • Best Practices in Reporting Experimental Results • Nomenclature.., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference management software Most Elsevier journals have their reference template available in many of the most popular reference management software products.These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote In this design, it is best to have an obvious separation between the laboratory area and the office area using partitions or, at a minimum, aisle space, but preferably using a wall and a door that can be closed. Occupants should not have to walk through laboratory areas to exit from their office space. Visitors and students  .These include all products that support Citation Style Language styles, such as Mendeley and Zotero, as well as EndNote.Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style.If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide razestudios.net/lab-report/help-me-do-a-chemistry-lab-report-platinum-business-undergrad-high-quality.

If no template is yet available for this journal, please follow the format of the sample references and citations as shown in this Guide.

Users of Mendeley Desktop can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the following link: Reference style Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text.The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.Barnaby and Jones 8 obtained a different result …' Reference section: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

Examples: Reference to a journal publication: 1 Chen Z, Yu YP, Zuo ZH, et al.

Targeting genomic rearrangements in tumor cells through Cas9-mediated insertion of a suicide gene.3843 For more than 3 authors the first 3 should be listed followed by 'et al.

' Abbreviated titles of journals must be provided.Provide the article's Digital Object Identifier (DOI) at the end of each reference, when available.Reference to a book: 2 Strunk Jr W, White EB.Reference to a chapter in an edited book: 3 Mettam GR, Adams LB.How to prepare an electronic version of your article.Artwork • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.

• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.• Provide captions to illustrations separately.• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.Formats If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below): EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.

TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.Please do not: • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors; • Supply files that are too low in resolution; • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.Color artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution.If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color , then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e., Science Direct and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.

Figure captions Ensure that each illustration has a caption.Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure.A caption should comprise a brief title ( not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration.Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.The figures (photographs, drawings) must be numbered with Arabic numerals.

Footnotes can be included below the figure.Figures that include more than one image should be labeled as a, b, c, etc.(lower case, use black or white bold according to the figure).Example: Graphs Graphs should be cited as figures and must be numbered with Arabic numerals.Footnotes can be included below the figure.

Graphs that include more than one image should be labeled as a, b, c, etc.In case they have legend, it must be placed below the image.

They should be built with Arial font and in the color palette called "Trek" (warm earth colours).

For the Spanish version the colour palette is called "Viajes".Graphs must be send in editable formats (MS excel if possible.We also accept Sigma plot and Origin) in order to make formal changes (colur, fonts, size, etc.Example: Data in Brief You have the option of converting any or all parts of your supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple data articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes your data.Data articles ensure that your data is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication.You are encouraged to submit your article for Data in Brief as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of your manuscript.If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the open access data journal, Data in Brief.Please note an open access fee of 500 USD is payable for publication in Data in Brief.

Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website.Please use this template to write your Data in Brief.Submission checklist The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review.Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.Ensure that the following items are present: One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details: • E-mail address Further considerations • References are in the correct format for this journal • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet) For any further information please visit our customer support site at .

Online Proof Correction Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online.The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor.Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version.All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.

We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours.It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication.Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed.PROOFREADING IS SOLELY YOUR RESPONSIBILITY.Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

Visit the Elsevier Support Center to find the answers you need.Here you will find everything from Frequently Asked Questions to ways to get in touch.Open Laboratory Design Traditionally, laboratories were designed for individual research groups with walls separating the laboratories and support spaces.Group sizes ranged from 2 to 10 people, and most groups were completely self-contained, each with its own equipment and facilities (Figure 9.The top figure is an example of a typical closed laboratory design with four separate laboratories.

The three walls separate the space and extend from floor to ceiling, with no shared spaces.) Since the 1990s, the trend has been for researchers to collaborate in a cross-disciplinary nature; chemists, biologists, physicists, engineers, and computer scientists work together on a common goal.At the same time, laboratory designers have moved to open multiple-module laboratories that allow a wide variety of configurations for casework and equipment setups.These laboratories often support large or multiple teams and are configured with relocatable furnishings.

Even when not using a multidiscipline approach, many facilities have moved toward larger, more open laboratories with the belief that working in teams raises overall productivity, promote open communication, and facilitates resource sharing.Team sizes, in some disciplines, have risen and are frequently as high as 12 to 20 individuals.Considerations for Open Laboratory Design There are advantages and disadvantages to open laboratory design.Advantages include flexibility for future needs because of open floor plan with adaptable furnishings; significant space savings compared with smaller, enclosed laboratories; and cost savings (first building/renovation costs and ongoing operating costs) compared with smaller, enclosed laboratories.Disadvantages and limitations include for large spaces, challenging to balance the ventilation system; limitations to the size or placement of the laboratory (e.

, the floor of the building, the type of research) because of chemical storage code limitations for flammable and other materials; need for isolated spaces because of specific types of work being conducted, such as cell or tissue work where cross-contamination is an issue, use of certain radioactive materials, lasers, materials requiring special security measures, glass-washing facilities (see section 9.3 for more information); challenge of storing chemicals and supplies when there is a lack of natural spaces created by walls and other fixtures; noise from people and equipment may be higher than in a closed laboratory; and inability of some researchers to work effectively in an open laboratory environment.Design teams should work with the research teams to find solutions that accommodate the needs of the researchers as much as possible.A combination of open laboratory spaces with smaller areas dedicated to special functions is often necessary.

Closed Laboratories and Access Closed or separate laboratory spaces are often necessary for certain functions because of the nature of the operation, equipment needs, or security concerns.These areas may or may not be separated with a door.

The need for a door and access control should be examined carefully for code requirements, safety protocol, and containment concerns.The following issues should be considered: Do the exits require doors by code? Must the corridor walls, doors, and frames be fire-rated by code? Is containment of spills or smoke an issue that demands doors? Is noise an issue that demands separation and attenuation? Does the need for room air pressure control necessitate a door closing the laboratory space off from other areas? Does the work present a hazard that requires that access by untrained personnel be controlled? Do some materials or equipment present a security risk? Do the materials require compliance with biosafety guidelines? Examples of operations or activities that may require separation from the main laboratory are in Table 9.Some Activities, Equipment, or Materials That May Require Separation from the Main Laboratory.The use of unusually hazardous materials may require a dedicated area for such work to most efficiently manage security, safety, and environmental risk.

Equivalent Linear Feet of Workspace When designing new laboratory spaces, consider the equivalent linear feet (ELF) of work surface within the laboratory.ELF can be divided into two categories: bench and equipment.

Bench ELF is the required length of benchtop on which instruments can be set and where preparatory work takes place, as well as the length of laboratory chemical hoods.Equipment ELF includes the length of floor space for equipment that does not fit on a bench.Typically, every two laboratory personnel whose work mostly involves hazardous chemicals should have at least one chemical hood, and these should be large enough to provide each person with a minimum of 3 linear ft, but it could be 8 ft or more depending on the planned activities and type of chemistry.Typical chemistry laboratories are designed to provide from 28 to 30 ELF per person.Quality control, biology, and analytical laboratories range from 20 to 28 ELF per person.

Quality control and production laboratories tend toward the low end of this range, whereas research laboratories are at or above the high end of the range.This number includes the support space outside the laboratory that is needed.These values can vary widely and must be addressed carefully for each project.Adaptability The frequency of change in laboratory use has made it desirable to provide furnishings and services that can be moved and adapted quickly.

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Although some services and surfaces will be fixed elements in any laboratory, such as sinks and chemical hoods, there are several options available to meet the adaptable needs for various types of research.Current design practice is to locate fixed elements such as laboratory chemical hoods and sinks at the perimeter of the laboratory, ensuring maximum mobility of interior equipment and furniture.Although fixed casework is common at the perimeters, moveable pieces are at the center to maximize flexibility 11 Sep 2013 - Business Letter. 27. Memoranda. 30. Electronic Mail. 32. VII. LABORATORY AND INFORMAL REPORTS 34. General. 34. Laboratory Reports. 35   Virtually all engineering organizations have similar standards and guidelines for the various types of   for good technical writing are including in Chapter V..Although fixed casework is common at the perimeters, moveable pieces are at the center to maximize flexibility.

The central parts of the laboratory are configured with sturdy mobile carts, adjustable tables, and equipment racks.

Another trend for new laboratory buildings is to design interstitial spaces between the floors and to have all the utilities above the ceiling Papers accepted for publication are subjected to a publication charge of US$1,100 for the first 15 typewritten pages, including figures and tables (file type: ms word; page size: letter; margins: 2,5; font type: Arial; font size: 12; interline: single space). Extra pages are U$100 each, beginning with the 16th page. Waives are not  .Another trend for new laboratory buildings is to design interstitial spaces between the floors and to have all the utilities above the ceiling.The interstitial spaces are large enough to allow maintenance workers to access these utilities from above the ceiling for both routine servicing and to move plumbing and other utilities as research demands change.Where interstitial spaces are not possible, overhead service carriers may be hung from the underside of the structural floor system.These service carriers may have quick connects to various utilities, such as local exhaust ventilation, computer cables, light fixtures, and electrical outlets.Casework, Furnishings, and Fixtures Casework should be durable and designed and constructed in a way that provides for long-term use, reuse, and relocation.

Some materials may not hold up well to intensive chemistry or laboratory reconfiguration.

Materials should be easy to clean and repair.For clean rooms, polypropylene or stainless steel may be preferable.Work surfaces should be chemical resistant, smooth, and easy to clean.Benchwork areas should have knee space to allow for chairs near fixed instruments or for procedures requiring prolonged operation.Work areas, including computers, should incorporate ergonomic features, such as adjustability, task lighting, and convenient equipment layout.

Allow adequate space for ventilation and cooling of computers and other electronics.Handwashing sinks for particularly hazardous materials may require elbow, foot, or electronic controls.Do not install more cupsinks than are needed.Unused sinks may develop dry traps that result in odor complaints.Shared Spaces Many facilities encourage sharing of some pieces of equipment.Locating the equipment in a space that is not defined as part of an individual's work zone facilitates sharing.

Some examples of equipment that can be shared are in Table 9.Examples of Equipment That Can Be Shared Between Researchers and Research Groups.In an open laboratory setting, duplication of much of this equipment can be avoided.Often, if the equipment is centrally located near a laboratory, it can be walled off to reduce noise.

The team needs to carefully address the need for alarms on specific pieces of equipment such as freezers and incubators that contain valuable samples.Care must be taken, however, not to assume that sharing is always effective.There are certain pieces of equipment that must be dedicated to specific users.Flooring Wet laboratories should have chemically resistant covered flooring.Sheet goods are usually preferable to floor tiles, because floor tiles may loosen or degrade over time, particularly near laboratory chemical hoods and sinks.Rubberized materials or flooring with a small amount of grit may be more slip-resistant, which is desirable in chemical laboratories.

of flooring material secured to the wall to form a wall base is also desirable.Floors above areas with sensitive equipment, such as lasers, should be sealed to prevent leaks.Doors, Windows, and Walls Walls should be finished with material that is easy to clean and maintain.Fire code may require certain doors, frames, and walls to be fire-rated.Doors should have view panels to prevent accidents caused by opening the door into a person on the other side and to allow individuals to see into the laboratory in case of an accident or injury.

Doors should open in the direction of egress.Laboratories should not have operable windows, particularly if there are chemical hoods or other local ventilation systems in the lab.Noise and Vibration Issues Many laboratories utilize equipment that may emit significant noise, require a stable structural environment, or both.During early planning stages, all equipment should be discussed regarding any unique noise or vibration sensitivity in order to locate the equipment properly.Large equipment such as centrifuges, shakers, and water baths often work best in separate equipment rooms.Pumps for older mass spectrometer units are both hot and noisy and are often located in either a small room or a hall.

If in a closet, the area must have extra exhaust to remove heat, or else equipment may fail from overheating.

With smaller and newer mass spectrometers, the pumps are often small and can fit into cabinets specifically designed for them.These pumps work especially well when water cooling is not required.Very few researchers need to hear their instrumentation running, but many want to see the equipment.Another consideration crucial to equipment-intensive areas is the allowable vibration tolerance.Most analytical equipment such as NMRs, sensitive microscopes, mass spectrometers, and equipment utilizing light amplification (laser) require either vibration isolation tables or an area that is structurally designed to allow for very little vibration.

Clarify the tolerance requirements with the user and equipment manufacturer during the equipment-programming phase, or early design process, so that the appropriate structure can be designed and the construction cost can be estimated more accurately.Safety Equipment and Utilities Each laboratory should have an adequate number and placement of safety showers, eyewash units, and fire extinguishers for its operations.

) The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z358.1-2004 standard provides guidance for safety shower and eyewash installation.

The 2004 version recommends provision of tepid water, which can be complicated from an engineering standpoint.Although this standard does not address wastewater, most designers agree that emergency eyewash and shower units should be connected to drain piping.It is prudent to have floor drains near the units, preferably sloped to the drain to prevent excessive flooding and potential slip hazards.Consider choosing barrier-free safety showers and eyewash units that can accommodate individuals with disabilities.The maximum reach height for the activation control for safety showers is 48 in.

Sprinkler systems may be required by the building code and are almost always recommended.For areas with water-sensitive equipment or materials, consider preaction systems.There may be resistance to the idea of installing sprinkler systems in laboratories, particularly laboratories that use water-sensitive chemicals or equipment.The following facts may be helpful: Each sprinkler head is individually and directly activated by the heat of the fire, not by smoke or an alarm system.

Thus, small fires are not likely to activate the sprinkler and moderate-size fires will likely activate only one or two heads.Indeed, more than 95% of fires are extinguished by one or two sprinkler heads.Statistics show that the sprinkler head failure rate is 1 in 16 million.In the event that the water from the sprinkler system reacts with water-sensitive materials, ensuing fires would be quenched once the reaction stopped.Damage is likely to be less severe than if a fire was not suppressed and was allowed to reach other flammable or combustible materials in the laboratory.

Laboratory equipment, including lasers, is just as likely to be harmed by the fire as by the water.Without the sprinkler system, a fire that is large enough to activate the sprinkler system would result in response by the fire department.The sprinkler heads are designed to release water at a rate of 10–15 gallons per minute (gpm), whereas a firefighter's hose delivers 250–500 gpm.Dry chemical systems can seriously damage electronic and other laboratory equipment and are impractical in a building-wide system.Alternative agents are impractical because of the amount of space required for the cylinders and are most effective in rooms or areas that are sealed, which is not how laboratories are designed.

These systems are most practical for an individual application, such as a piece of equipment or a “sealed” room.Locate utility shutoff switches outside or at the exit of the laboratory.The purpose of the switch is to shut down potentially hazardous operations quickly in the event of an emergency.Locate room purge buttons at the exits in laboratories with chemical hoods.For most laboratory buildings, activating the room purge button shuts down or minimizes supply air while increasing exhaust ventilation.

In the event of a chemical spill, activating the purge system will help ventilate the resulting chemical vapors more quickly.Laboratories should have abundant electrical supply outlets to eliminate the need for extension cords and multiplug adapters.Place electrical panels in an accessible area not likely to be obstructed.Install ground-fault circuit interrupters near sinks and wet areas.Assess and provide for emergency power needs.

Where possible, install chilled water loops for equipment requiring cooling.Chilled water loops save energy, water, and sewer costs.Americans with Disability Act: Accessibility Issues Within the Laboratory Title 1 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 requires an employer to provide reasonable accommodation for qualified individuals with disabilities who are employees or applicants for employment, unless doing so would cause undue hardship.The design team and the owner are responsible for identifying what reasonable accommodations should and can be made to meet ADA guidelines or requirements.In addition, some school systems and municipalities require a minimum number or percentage of accessible work areas in teaching laboratories.Accessible furniture, including laboratory chemical hoods, are readily available from most suppliers.The American Chemical Society has an excellent resource available online or in print, Teaching Chemistry to Students with Disabilities: A Manual for High Schools, Colleges, and Graduate Programs (ACS, 2001).

It is prudent to provide barrier-free safety showers and eyewash units for all laboratories.2 illustrates the specifications for barrier-free emergency equipment, according to ANSI 117.1-1992, “Accessible and Usable Building Facilities.” Specifications for barrier-free safety showers and eyewash units.

Additional accommodations will likely need to be made individually, depending on the special needs of the researcher.Partnering with the researcher, supervisor, and a laboratory safety professional will help determine the extent of the accommodations.For wet laboratories, service animals should either have a place outside the lab or an area within the laboratory that is accessible without the animal having to traverse areas where chemicals or other hazardous materials could be present at floor level, including spills.Older Facilities Aging facilities can present multiple challenges.As materials of construction begin to degrade, the safety and environmental provisions of the facility often degrade as well.For older facilities, it is important to have a strong operations and maintenance program that monitors and maintains plumbing, ventilation, and structural components.

Nonetheless, as individual laboratories or spaces are renovated for new uses or upgrades, there are opportunities for improving and modernizing building systems.Depending on the location of the laboratory building, there may be requirements for bringing the entire building up to current building codes and standards once a certain percentage of the building is under renovation.These code requirements may include fire protection systems, accessibility, plumbing, ventilation, alarm systems, chemical storage restrictions, and egress issues.With rising interest in energy conservation, there have been numerous studies and instances of retro-commissioning of laboratories.The focus is generally on the laboratory ventilation system, with the goal of managing airflow and temperature control to eliminate waste and reduce overall energy use.

In “Laboratories for the 21st Century” the U.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA/DOE, 2006), reports that in most studied cases, retro-commissioning, when planned and executed well, resulted in reductions of at least 30% of overall facility energy use with a payback period of less than 3 years.

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The typical retro-commissioning process proceeds in five major steps: Planning.Bring facility and EHS staff, design engineers, and users together to discuss goals.

Gather information about the current system, including the original plans, as-built plans, major alterations, and current function, including ventilation rates Where to buy an laboratory report engineering privacy CSE American 38 pages / 10450 words Undergrad.Gather information about the current system, including the original plans, as-built plans, major alterations, and current function, including ventilation rates.

Verify all systems including the direct digital control or building automation systems, evaluate all components that affect energy use, and verify monitoring systems.Benchmark utility and energy use data, analyze trends, and test all equipment TheTeamBehindTheTeam.com Methodology Howwe choose the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers believe the American Dream should be open   the long hours traditionally worked by hotel managers in this 24-7 - 3 FIRST, ELIGIBLE COMPANIES (private or public, of any size, but not government agencies,  .Benchmark utility and energy use data, analyze trends, and test all equipment.Testing should include functional testing of chemical hoods and related components, including face velocity tests, containment tests, etc TheTeamBehindTheTeam.com Methodology Howwe choose the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers believe the American Dream should be open   the long hours traditionally worked by hotel managers in this 24-7 - 3 FIRST, ELIGIBLE COMPANIES (private or public, of any size, but not government agencies,  .Testing should include functional testing of chemical hoods and related components, including face velocity tests, containment tests, etc.Select which improvements will be made and prioritize them.Implement the improvements and test performance contemporary political culture.

Implement the improvements and test performance.

Clearly document information and provide training to laboratory personnel and maintenance personnel.Common conditions that lead to energy waste include overabundance of laboratory chemical hoods, laboratory chemical hoods with large bypass openings, dampers in fixed positions, NOTE: Clean benches are not designed for use with hazardous materials.These are appropriate for use in work with materials that necessitate clean work conditions and should only be used for materials or chemicals that one could safety use on a benchtop.Risk Assessment For all materials, the objective is to keep airborne concentrations below established exposure limits (see Chapter 4, section 4.Where there is no established exposure limit, where mixtures are present, or where reactions may result in products that are not completely characterized, prudent practice keeps exposures ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable).For chemicals, determine whether the material is flammable or reactive or if it poses a health hazard from inhalation.If no significant risk exists, the work does not likely require any special ventilation.If potential risk does exist, look at the physical properties of the chemical, specifically its vapor pressure and vapor density.

Vapor pressure is usually measured in millimeters of mercury.A low vapor pressure (<10 mmHg) indicates that the chemical does not readily form vapors at room temperature.General laboratory ventilation or an alternative such as the elephant trunk or snorkel may be appropriate, unless the material is heated or in a higher temperature room that might promote vapor formation.High vapor pressure indicates that the material easily forms vapors and may require use of a ventilated enclosure, such as a chemical hood.Vapor density is compared to that of air, which is 1.

A chemical having a vapor density greater than 1 is heavier than air.If the vapors need to be controlled, a chemical hood or a ventilation device that draws air from below, such as a downdraft table or a slot hood or elephant trunk with the exhaust aimed low may be appropriate.Conversely, a chemical with a vapor density less than 1 is lighter than air.Besides a chemical hood, a ventilation device that draws air from above, such as an elephant trunk or snorkel with the exhaust positioned above the source, may work best.For radioactive or biological materials, consider whether the operations might cause the materials to aerosolize or become airborne and whether inhalation poses a risk to health or the environment.

Determine whether filtration or trapping is required or recommended.For manipulating solid particulates, a chemical hood and similar equipment with higher airflow may be too turbulent.Weighing boxes or ventilated balance enclosures may be a better fit for such work.For nanomaterials, a laboratory chemical hood might be too turbulent for manipulating the materials.Also, consider whether the exhaust containing these tiny particles should be filtered.

Studies have shown that high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are very effective for nano-size particles.Containment tests for chemical hoods allow for a very minor amount of leakage into the breathing zone of the user.For chemical vapors, such an amount may be insignificant, but in the same volume of nanoparticles, the number of particles may be quite large, and biosafety cabinets, gloveboxes or filtering hoods would be better.) More specialized ventilation systems, such as biosafety cabinets and gloveboxes, may be necessary to control specific types of hazards, as discussed later in this chapter.Laboratory Chemical Hoods Laboratory chemical hoods are the most important components used to protect laboratory personnel from exposure to hazardous chemicals and agents.Functionally, a standard chemical hood is a fire- and chemical-resistant enclosure with one opening (face) in the front with a movable window (sash) to allow user access to the interior.Large volumes of air are drawn through the face and out the top into an exhaust duct to contain and remove contaminants from the laboratory.Note that because a substantial amount of energy is required to supply tempered supply air to even a small hood, the use of hoods to store bottles of toxic or corrosive chemicals is a very wasteful practice, which can seriously impair the effectiveness of the hood as a local ventilation device.Thus, it is preferable to provide separate vented cabinets for the storage of toxic or corrosive chemicals.

The amount of air exhausted by such cabinets is much less than that exhausted by a properly operating hood.A well-designed hood, when properly installed and maintained, offers a substantial degree of protection to the user if it is used appropriately and its limitations are understood.Chemical hoods are the best choice, particularly when mixtures or uncharacterized products are present and any time there is a need to manage chemicals using the ALARA principle.Laboratory Chemical Hood Face Velocity The average velocity of air drawn through the face of the laboratory chemical hood is called the face velocity.The face velocity greatly influences the ability to contain hazardous substances, that is, its containment efficiency.Face velocities that are too low or too high reduce the containment efficiency.

Face velocity is only one indicator of hood performance and one should not rely on it as a sole basis for determining the containment ability of the chemical hood.There are no regulations that specify acceptable face velocity.Indeed, modern hood designs incorporate interior configurations that affect the airflow patterns and are effective at different ranges of face velocity.For traditional chemical hoods, several professional organizations have recommended that the chemical hood maintain a face velocity between 80 and 100 feet per minute (fpm).

Face velocities between 100 and 120 fpm have been recommended in the past for substances of very high toxicity or where outside influences adversely affect hood performance.

However, energy costs to operate the chemical hood are directly proportional to the face velocity and there is no consistent evidence that the higher face velocity results in better containment.Face velocities approaching or exceeding 150 fpm should not be used; they may cause turbulence around the periphery of the sash opening and actually reduce the capture efficiency, and may reentrain settled particles into the air.With the desire for more sustainable laboratory ventilation design, manufacturers are producing high-performance hoods, also known as low-flow hoods, that achieve the same level of containment as traditional ones, but at a lower face velocity.These chemical hoods are designed to operate at 60 or 80 fpm and in some cases even lower.) Average face velocity is determined by measuring individual points across the plane of the sash opening and calculating their average.A more robust measure of containment uses tracer gases to provide quantitative data and smoke testing to visualize airflow patterns.ASHRAE/ANSI 110 testing is an example of this technique (see section 9.This type of testing should be conducted at the time the chemical hood is installed, when substantial changes are made to the ventilation system, including rebalancing and periodically as part of a recommissioning or maintenance program.Once a chemical hood is tested and determined to be acceptable via the ASHRAE/ANSI 110 method or an equivalent means, the face velocity should be noted and used as the reference point for routine testing.Each chemical hood, laboratory, facility, or site must define the acceptable average face velocity, minimum acceptable point velocity, and maximum standard deviation of velocities, as well as when ASHRAE/ANSI 110 or visualization testing is required.These requirements should be incorporated into the laboratory's Chemical Hygiene Plan and ventilation system management plans (see section 9.

When first installed and balanced, a laboratory chemical hood must be subjected to the ASHRAE/ANSI 110 or equivalent test before it is commissioned.When multiple similar chemical hoods are installed at the same time, at least half should be tested, provided the design is standardized relative to location of doors and traffic, and to location and type of air supply diffusers.Factors That Affect Laboratory Chemical Hood Performance Tracer gas containment testing of chemical hoods reveals that air currents impinging on the face at a velocity exceeding 30 to 50% of the face velocity reduce the containment efficiency by causing turbulence and interfering with the laminar flow of the air entering the chemical hood.Thirty to fifty percent of a face velocity of 100 fpm, for example, is 30 to 50 fpm, which represents a very low velocity that can be produced in many ways.The rate of 20 fpm is considered to be still air because that is the velocity at which most people first begin to sense air movement.

Proximity to Traffic Most people walk at approximately 250 fpm (approximately 3 mph 4.8 kph ) and as they walk, vortices exceeding 250 fpm form behind them.If a person walks in front of an open chemical hood, the vortices can overcome the face velocity and pull contaminants into the vortex, and into the laboratory.Therefore, laboratory chemical hoods should not be located on heavily traveled aisles, and those that are should be kept closed when not in use.Foot traffic near these chemical hoods should be avoided when work is being performed.

Proximity to Supply Air Diffusers Air is supplied continuously to laboratories to replace the air exhausted through laboratory chemical hoods and other exhaust sources and to provide ventilation and temperature/humidity control.This air usually enters the laboratory through devices called supply air diffusers located in the ceiling.Velocities that exceed 800 fpm are frequently encountered at the face of these diffusers.If air currents from these diffusers reach the face of a chemical hood before they decay to 30 to 50% of the face velocity, they cause the same effect as air currents produced by a person walking in front of the chemical hood.

Normally, the effect is not as pronounced as the traffic effect, but it occurs constantly, whereas the traffic effect is transient.

Relocating the diffuser, replacing it with another type, or rebalancing the diffuser air volumes in the laboratory can alleviate this problem.Proximity to Windows and Doors Exterior windows with movable sashes are not recommended in laboratories.Wind blowing through the windows and high-velocity vortices caused when doors open can strip contaminants out of the chemical hoods and interfere with laboratory static pressure controls.Place hoods away from doors and heavy traffic aisles to reduce the chance of turbulence reducing the effectiveness of the hood.Prevention of Intentional Release of Hazardous Substances into Chemical Hoods Laboratory chemical hoods should be regarded as safety devices that can contain and exhaust toxic, offensive, or flammable materials that form as a result of laboratory procedures.Just as you should never flush laboratory waste down a drain, never intentionally send waste up the chemical hood.

Do not use the chemical hood as a means of treating or disposing of chemical waste, including intentionally emptying hazardous gases from compressed gas cylinders or allowing waste solvent to evaporate.For some operations, condensers, traps, and/or scrubbers are recommended or necessary to contain and collect vapors or dusts to prevent the release of harmful concentrations of hazardous materials from the chemical hood exhaust.Laboratory Chemical Hood Performance Checks When checking if laboratory chemical hoods are performing properly, observe the following guidelines: Evaluate each hood before initial use and on a regular basis (at least once a year) to visualize airflow and to verify that the face velocity meets the criteria specified for it in the laboratory's Chemical Hygiene Plan or laboratory ventilation plan.Verify the absence of excessive turbulence (see section 9.Make sure that a continuous performance monitoring device is present, and check it every time the chemical hood is used.(For further information, see section 9.1 provides a list of things to do to maximize chemical hood efficiency.Quick Guide for Maximizing Efficiency of Laboratory Chemical Hoods.Many factors can compromise the efficiency of chemical hood operation, and most are avoidable.

Be aware of all behavior that can, in some way, modify the chemical hood and its capabilities.Housekeeping Keep laboratory chemical hoods and adjacent work areas clean and free of debris at all times.Keep solid objects and materials (such as paper) from entering the exhaust ducts, because they can lodge in the ducts or fans and adversely affect their operation.The chemical hood will have better airflow across its work surface if it contains a minimal number of bottles, beakers, and laboratory apparatus; therefore, prudent practice keeps unnecessary equipment and glassware outside the chemical hood at all times and stores all chemicals in approved storage cans, containers, or cabinets.Furthermore, keep the workspace neat and clean in all laboratory operations, particularly those involving the use of chemical hoods, so that any procedure or experiment can be undertaken without the possibility of disturbing, or even destroying, what is being done.

Sash Operation Except when adjustments to the apparatus are being made, keep the chemical hood closed, with vertical sashes down and horizontal sashes closed, to help prevent the spread of a fire, spill, or other hazard into the laboratory.

Horizontal sliding sashes should not be removed.The face opening should be kept small to improve the overall performance of the hood.If the face velocity becomes excessive, the facility engineers should make adjustments or corrections.For chemical hoods without face velocity controls (see section 9.1), the sash should be positioned to produce the recommended face velocity, which often occurs only over a limited range of sash positions.This range should be determined and marked during laboratory chemical hood testing.Do not raise the sash above the working height for which it has been tested to maintain adequate face velocity.

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Doing so may allow the release of contaminants from the chemical hood into the laboratory environment.

Chemical hood sashes may move vertically (sash moves up and down), horizontally (sash is divided in panes that move side to side to provide the opening to the hood interior), or a combination of both.Although both types of sash offer protection from the materials within the hood and help control or maintain airflow, consider the following: Some experimentation requires the lab personnel to access equipment or materials toward the upper portion of the chemical hood Laboratory Facilities Prudent Practices in the Laboratory NCBI NIH.Although both types of sash offer protection from the materials within the hood and help control or maintain airflow, consider the following: Some experimentation requires the lab personnel to access equipment or materials toward the upper portion of the chemical hood.

If the chemical hood is equipped with a vertical sash, it may be necessary to raise the sash completely in order to conduct the procedure.◦ The laboratory chemical hood must provide adequate containment at that sash height.Thus, the chemical hood must be tested in that position From the Editors, U.S. warhead production FROM A SMALL laboratory built in 1942 beneath the stands of the University of Chicago football stadium, the   In the wake of a National Academy of Sciences/National Academy of Engineering report published last October rebuking the Energy Department's oversight of the  .

Thus, the chemical hood must be tested in that position.

◦ With the sash completely raised, it no longer provides a barrier between the chemical hood user and the materials within the hood.◦ If the only way to keep the sash in a fully raised position requires the use of a sash stop, the laboratory personnel may get into the habit of leaving the sash in this position, potentially reducing the safety and energy efficiency of the chemical hood.The standard operating position for the vertical sash may be comfortable for the majority of users.However, shorter laboratory personnel may find that this position does not provide an adequate barrier from the materials within the chemical hood and may need to adjust downward.Taller laboratory personnel may need to raise the sash more in order to comfortably work in the chemical hood.

For chemical hoods with horizontal sashes, the intended operating configuration is to open the panes in such a way that at least one pane is between both arms, providing a barrier between the user and the contents of the chemical hood.Permanently removing panes may decrease the safety afforded by the sash barrier and negatively affect containment and waste energy.Working with all panes moved to one side or through an opening in the center of the laboratory chemical hood provides no barrier between the user and the materials within the chemical hood.The chemical hood is not intended to be used in this configuration.

Sash panes should be equal width with a maximum of 15 in.(375 mm) to accommodate use of the sash pane as a protective barrier with operator arm on either side.Conventional glass or plastic sashes are not designed to provide explosion protection per ANSI/NFPA (ANSI, 2004; NFPA, 2004).Sash panes and viewing panes constructed of composite material (safety glass backed by polycarbonate, with the safety glass toward the explosion hazard) are recommended for chemical hoods used when there is the possibility of explosion or violent overpressurization (e.For all laboratory chemical hoods, the sash should be kept closed when the hood is not actively attended.Lowering or closing the sash not only provides additional personal protection but also results in significant energy conservation.Some chemical hoods may be equipped with automatic sash-positioning systems with counterweighting or electronic controls (see section 9.Constant Operation of Laboratory Chemical Hoods Although turning laboratory chemical hoods off when not in use saves energy, keeping them on at all times is safer, especially if they are connected directly to a single fan.Because most laboratory facilities are under negative pressure, air may be drawn backward through the nonoperating fan, down the duct, and into the laboratory unless an ultralow-leakage backdraft damper is used in the duct.If the air is cold, it may freeze liquids in the hood.The ducts are rarely insulated; therefore, condensation and ice may form in cold weather.When the chemical hood is turned on again and the duct temperature rises, the ice will melt, and water will run down the ductwork, drip into the hood, and possibly react with chemicals in the hood.

Chemical hoods connected to a common exhaust manifold offer the advantage that the main exhaust system is rarely shut down.Hence, positive ventilation is available on the system at all times.In a constant air volume (CAV) system (see section 9.1), install shutoff dampers to each chemical hood, allowing passage of enough air to prevent fumes from leaking into the laboratory when the sash is closed.Prudent practice allows 10 to 20% of the full volume of flow to be drawn through the laboratory chemical hood in the off position to prevent excessive corrosion.Some laboratory chemical hoods on variable air volume (VAV) systems (see section 9.2) have automatic setback controls that adjust the airflow to a lower face velocity when not in use.The setback may be triggered by occupancy sensors, a light switch, or a timer or a completely lowered sash.Understand what triggers the setback and ensure that the chemical hood is not used for hazardous operations when in setback mode.Some chemical hoods do have on/off switches and may be turned off for energy conservation reasons.They should only be turned off when they are empty of hazardous materials.

An example of an acceptable operation would be a teaching laboratory where the empty chemical hoods are turned off when the laboratory is not in use.Testing and Verification The OSHA lab standard includes a provision regarding laboratory chemical hoods, including a requirement for some type of continuous monitoring device on each chemical hood to allow the user to verify performance and routine testing of the hood.Laboratory chemical hoods should be tested at least as follows: containment test by manufacturer; annual or more frequent face velocity and airflow visualization; performance test any time a potential problem is reported; and containment test after significant changes to the ventilation system, including rebalancing or recommissioning.Initial Testing All laboratory chemical hoods should be tested before they leave the manufacturer according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 110-1995 or equivalent, Methods of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ANSI, 1995).They should pass the low- and high-volume smoke challenges with no leakage or flow reversals and have a control level of 0.

It is highly recommended that chemical hoods be retested by trained personnel after installation in their final location, using ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 or equivalent testing.The control level of tracer gas for an “as installed” or “as used” test via the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 method should not exceed 0.The ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 test is the most practical way to determine chemical hood capture efficiency quantitatively.

The test includes several components, which may be used together or separately, including face velocity testing, flow visualization, face velocity controller response testing, and tracer gas containment testing.These tests are much more accurate than face velocity and smoke testing alone.Respectively, ASHRAE and ANSI found that 28% or 38% of chemical hoods tested using this method did not meet the pass criteria, even though face velocity testing alone found them to be in an acceptable face velocity range.Performance should be evaluated against the design specifications for uniform airflow across the chemical hood face as well as for the total exhaust air volume.Equally important is the evaluation of operator exposure.

The first step in the evaluation of hood performance is the use of a smoke tube or similar device to determine that the laboratory chemical hood is on and exhausting air.The second step is to measure the velocity of the airflow at the face of the hood.The third step is to determine the uniformity of air delivery to the hood face by making a series of face velocity measurements taken in a grid pattern.Leak testing is normally conducted using a mannequin equipped with sensors for the test gas.As an alternative, a person wearing the sensors or collectors may follow a sequence of movements to simulate common activities, such as transferring chemicals.

It is most accurate to perform the in-place tests with the chemical hood at least partially loaded with common materials (e., chemical containers filled with water, equipment normally used in the chemical hood), in order to be more representative of operating conditions.For the ASHRAE 110-1995 leak testing, the method calls for a release rate for the test gas of 4 liters per minute (Lpm), but suggests that higher rates may be used.One-liter per minute release rate approximates pouring a volatile solvent from one beaker to another.

Eight liters per minute approximates boiling water on a 500-W hot plate.The 4-Lpm rate is an intermediate of these two conditions.If there is a possibility that the chemical hood will be used for volatile materials under heating conditions, consider a higher release rate of up to 8 Lpm for worst-case conditions.The total volume of air exhausted by a laboratory chemical hood is the sum of the face volume (average face velocity times face area of the hood) plus air leakage, which averages about 5 to 15% of the face volume.

If the laboratory chemical hood and the general ventilating system are properly designed, face velocities in the range of the design criteria will provide a laminar flow of air over the work surface and sides of the hood.

Higher face velocities (150 fpm or more), which exhaust the general laboratory air at a greater rate, waste energy and are likely to degrade hood performance by creating air turbulence at the face and within the chemical hood, causing vapors to spill out into the laboratory (Figure 9.Laminar versus turbulent velocity profile.Velocity data are from a single traverse point on two separate hoods.The light line represents a hood where supply air interference caused large variations in velocity, a “typical” turbulent (more.

) An additional method for containment testing is the EN 14175, which is the standard adopted by the European Union and replaces several other procedures that were in place for individual countries.Parts 3 (Type tests) and 4 (On-site tests) of this standard address methods for “as manufactured” and “as installed/used” systems, respectively.Routine Testing Analyze face velocity using the method and criteria described in section 9.Visualize airflow using smoke tubes, bombs, or fog generators.Verify that continuous flow monitoring devices are working properly.Verify that other controls, including automatic sash positioners, alarm systems, etc.

Check the sash to ensure that it is in good condition, moves easily, is unobstructed, and has adequate clarity to see inside the laboratory chemical hood.Ensure that the laboratory chemical hood is being used as intended (e., no evidence of perchloric acid in a chemical hood not designed for it, not using it as a chemical storage device).

Note any conditions that could affect laboratory chemical hood performance, such as large equipment, excessive storage, etc.Take corrective actions where necessary and retest.Provide information and test results to the chemical hood users and/or supervisors.Document the results in order to maintain a log showing the history of chemical hood performance.Additional Testing Laboratory personnel should request a chemical hood performance evaluation any time there is a change in any aspect of the ventilation system.

Thus, changes in the total volume of supply air, changes in the locations of supply air diffusers, or the addition of other auxiliary local ventilation devices (e., more chemical hoods, vented cabinets, and snorkels) all call for reevaluation of the performance of all chemical hoods in the laboratory.Face Velocity Testing Visually divide the face opening of a laboratory chemical hood into an imaginary grid, with each grid space being approximately 1 ft 2 in area.Using an anemometer, velometer, or similar device, take a measurement at the center of each grid space.

Face velocity readings should be integrated for at least 10 seconds (20 is preferable) because of the fluctuations in flow.The measured velocity will likely fluctuate for several seconds; record the reading once it has stabilized.Calculate the average of the velocity for every grid space.The resulting number is the average face velocity.

Analyze the results to determine if any one measurement is 20% or more above or below the average.

Such readings indicate the possibility of turbulent or nonlaminar airflow.Smoke tests will help confirm whether this is problematic.Traditional handheld instruments are subject to probe movement and positioning errors as well as reading errors owing to the optimistic bias of the investigator.Also, the traditional method yields only a snapshot of the velocity data, and no measure of variation over time is possible.To overcome this limitation, take velocity data while using a velocity transducer connected to a data acquisition system and read continuously by a computer for approximately 30 seconds at each traverse point.

If the transducer is fixed in place, using a ring stand or similar apparatus, and is properly positioned and oriented, this method overcomes the errors and drawbacks associated with the traditional method.The variation in data for a traverse point can be used as an indicator of turbulence, an important additional performance indicator that has been almost completely overlooked in the past.If the standard deviation of the average velocity profile at each point exceeds 20% of the mean, or the average standard deviation of velocities at each traverse point (turbulence) exceeds 15% of the mean face velocity, corrections should be made by adjusting the interior baffles and, if necessary, by altering the path of the supply air flowing into the room (see Figure 9.Most laboratory chemical hoods are equipped with a baffle that has movable slot openings at both the top and the bottom, which should be moved until the airflow is essentially uniform.

Larger chemical hoods may require additional slots in the baffle to achieve uniform airflow across the face.These adjustments should be made by an experienced laboratory ventilation engineer or technician using proper instrumentation.California Laboratory Chemical Fume Hoods and Ventilated Enclosures The California chemical fume hood is a ventilated enclosure with a movable sash on more than one side.They are usually accessed through a horizontal sliding sash from the front and rear.

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Because their configuration precludes the use of baffles and airfoils, they may not provide a suitable face velocity distribution across their many openings.A ventilated enclosure is any site-fabricated chemical hood designed primarily for containing processes such as scale-up or pilot plant equipment.Most do not have baffles or airfoils, and most designs have not had the rigorous testing and design refinement that conventional mass-produced chemical hoods enjoy Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago. It is the largest national laboratory by size and scope in the Midwest. Argonne was initially  .Most do not have baffles or airfoils, and most designs have not had the rigorous testing and design refinement that conventional mass-produced chemical hoods enjoy.

Working at the opening of the devices, even when the plane of the opening has not been broken, may expose personnel to higher concentrations of hazardous materials than if a conventional hood were used.Perchloric Acid Laboratory Chemical Hoods The perchloric acid laboratory chemical hood, with its associated ductwork, exhaust fan, and support systems, is designed especially for use with perchloric acid and other materials that can deposit shock-sensitive crystalline materials in the hood and exhaust system The MEA Report Writing Guide is intended to assist students enrolled in the MEA Mining Engineering. Program   good report writing and begins to develop the   Font size. 12 point. Spacing between sentences. Single space after full stop. Spacing between paragraphs. 12 point. Line spacing single spacing. Left margin..

Perchloric Acid Laboratory Chemical Hoods The perchloric acid laboratory chemical hood, with its associated ductwork, exhaust fan, and support systems, is designed especially for use with perchloric acid and other materials that can deposit shock-sensitive crystalline materials in the hood and exhaust system.

These materials become pyrophoric when they dry or dehydrate (see also Chapter 6, section 6.Special water spray systems are used to wash down all interior surfaces of the hood, duct, fan, and stack, and special drains are necessary to handle the effluent from the washdown agriculture.Special water spray systems are used to wash down all interior surfaces of the hood, duct, fan, and stack, and special drains are necessary to handle the effluent from the washdown.The liner and work surface are usually stainless steel with welded seams.

Perchloric acid hoods have drains in their work surface.Water spray heads are usually installed in the top, behind the baffles, and in the interior.The water spray should be turned on whenever perchloric acid is being heated in the chemical fume hood.The ductwork should be fabricated of plastic, glass, or stainless steel and fitted with spray heads approximately every 10 ft on vertical runs and at each change in direction.The fan and stack should be fabricated of plastic, fiberglass, or stainless steel.

Welded or flanged and gasketed fittings to provide airtight and watertight connections are recommended.Avoid horizontal runs because they inhibit drainage, and the spray action is not as effective on the top and sides of the duct.Any washdown piping, which is located outside must be protected from freezing.A drain and waste valve on the water supply piping that allows it to drain when not in use is helpful.Route the drain lines carefully to prevent the creation of traps that retain water.

Write special operating procedures to cover the washdown procedure for these types of hoods.The exhaust from a perchloric acid hood should not be manifolded with that from other types of chemical hoods.Radioisotope Laboratory Chemical Hoods Design chemical hoods used for work with radioactive sources or materials so that they can be decontaminated completely on a regular basis.A usual feature is a one-piece stainless steel welded liner with smooth curved corners that can be cleaned easily and completely.The superstructure of radioisotope hoods is usually made stronger than that of a conventional hood to support lead bricks and other shielding that may be required.

Special treatment of the exhaust from radioisotope hoods may be required by government regulations to prevent the release of radioactive material into the environment.This treatment usually involves the use of HEPA filters (see section 9.Another practical way to handle radioactive materials that require special exhaust treatment is to use a containment chamber within a traditional chemical hood.Several safety supply companies offer portable disposable glovebag containment chambers with sufficient space to conduct the work and then dispose of them in accordance with applicable nuclear regulatory standards.Clean Room Laboratory Chemical Hoods Chemical hoods in clean rooms are generally no different than traditional chemical hoods, except that they are usually made of polypropylene or thermoplastics.Some have hinged sashes rather than sliding sashes.Most require separate chemical hoods for acid work and solvent work.

Polypropylene hoods burn easily, melt quickly, and may become fully involved in a fire.There are fire-retardant polypropylene and other thermoplastics available, but they cost more.Alternatively, an automatic fire extinguisher may be installed inside.Laboratory Chemical Hood Exhaust Treatment Until recently, treatment of laboratory chemical hood exhausts has been limited.Because effluent quantities and concentrations are relatively low compared to those of other industrial air emission sources, their removal is technologically challenging.And the chemistry for a given chemical hood effluent can be difficult to predict and may change over time.

Nevertheless, legislation and regulations increasingly recognize that certain materials in laboratory chemical hoods may be sufficiently hazardous that they can no longer be expelled directly into the air.Therefore, the practice of removing these materials from exhaust streams will become increasingly more prevalent.Laboratory Chemical Hood Scrubbers and Contaminant Removal Systems A number of technologies are evolving for treating chemical hood exhaust by means of scrubbers and containment removal systems.Whenever possible, experiments involving toxic materials should be designed so that they are collected in traps or scrubbers rather than released.If for some reason collection is impossible, HEPA filters are recommended for highly toxic particulates.

Liquid scrubbers may also be used to remove particulates, vapors, and gases from the exhaust system.None of these methods, however, is completely effective, and all trade an air pollution problem for a solid or liquid waste disposal problem.Incineration may be the ultimate method for destroying combustible compounds in exhaust air, but adequate temperature and dwell time are required to ensure complete combustion.Incinerators require considerable capital to build and energy to operate; hence, other methods should be studied before resorting to their use.Determine the optimal system for collecting or destroying toxic materials in exhaust air on a case-by-case basis.

Treatment of exhaust air should be considered only if it is not practical to pass the gases or vapors through a scrubber or adsorption train before they enter the exhaust airstream.Also, if an exhaust system treatment device is added to an existing chemical hood, carefully evaluate the impact on the fan and other exhaust system components.These devices require significant additional energy to overcome the pressure drop they add to the system.Liquid Scrubbers A laboratory chemical hood scrubber is a laboratory-scale version of a typical packed-bed liquid scrubber used for industrial air pollution control.10 shows a schematic of a typical chemical hood scrubber.

Schematic of a typical laboratory chemical hood scrubber.Contaminated air from the chemical hood enters the unit and passes through the packed-bed, liquid spray section, and mist eliminator and into the exhaust system for release up the stack.The air and the scrubbing liquor pass in a countercurrent fashion for efficient gas-liquid contact.The scrubbing liquor is recirculated from the sump and back to the top of the system using a pump.Water-soluble gases, vapors, and aerosols are dissolved into the scrubbing liquor.

Particulates are also captured quite effectively by this type of scrubber.Removal efficiencies for most water-soluble acid- and base-laden airstreams are usually between 95 and 98%.Scrubber units are typically configured vertically and are located next to the chemical hood as shown in Figure 9.They are also produced in a top-mount version, in which the packing, spray manifold, and mist eliminator sections are located on top of the chemical hood and the sump and liquid-handling portion are underneath for a compact arrangement taking up no more floor area than the hood itself.

Most hoods do not require a scrubber unit, assuming the exhaust stack is designed properly and chemical quantities of volatile materials are low.Other Gas-Phase Filters Another basic type of gas-phase filtration is available for chemical hoods in addition to liquid scrubbers.These are inert adsorbents and chemically active adsorbents.The inert variety includes activated carbon, activated alumina, and molecular sieves.These substances typically come in bulk form for use in a deep bed and are available also as cartridges and as panels for use in housings similar to particulate filter housings.

They are usually manufactured in the form of beads, but they may take many forms.The beads are porous and have extremely large surface areas with sites onto which gas and vapor molecules are trapped or adsorbed as they pass through.Chemically active adsorbents are simply inert adsorbents impregnated with a strong oxidizer, such as potassium permanganate (purple media), which reacts with and destroys the organic vapors.Although there are other oxidizers targeted to specific compounds, the permanganates are the most popular.Adsorbents can handle hundreds of compounds, including most volatile organic components but also have an affinity for harmless species such as water vapor.

As the air passes through the adsorbent bed, gases are removed in a section of the bed.(For this discussion, gas means gases and vapors.) As the bed loads with gases, and if the adsorbent is not regenerated or replaced, eventually contaminants will break through the end of the bed.After breakthrough occurs, gases will pass through the bed at higher and higher concentrations at a steady state until the upstream and downstream levels are almost identical.To prevent breakthrough, the adsorbent must be either changed or regenerated on a regular basis.

Downstream monitoring to detect breakthrough or sampling of the media to determine the remaining capacity of the bed should be performed regularly.An undesirable characteristic of these types of scrubbers is that if high concentrations of organics or hydrocarbons are carried into the bed, as would occur if a liquid were spilled inside the hood, a large exotherm occurs in the reaction zone of the bed.This exotherm may cause a fire in the scrubber.Place these scrubbers and other downstream devices such as particulate filters in locations where the effects of a fire would be minimized.Fires can start in these devices at surprisingly low temperatures because of the catalytic action of the adsorbent matrix.

Therefore, use and operate such devices with care.High-Efficiency Filters Air from laboratory chemical hoods and biological safety cabinets (BSCs) in which some radioactive or biologically active particulates are used should be properly filtered to remove these agents and prevent their release into the atmosphere.Other hazardous particulates may require this type of treatment as well.The most popular method of removal is a HEPA filter.3 m in diameter and may be just as effective with smaller particle sizes.Studies have shown that HEPA filters can be quite effective at trapping nanoparticles, due to Brownian motion and electrostatic capture.Before any filtration system is installed, a risk assessment should be performed to determine the need and the appropriate level of filtration required.Ultra-low penetration air (ULPA) filters are an alternative to HEPA filters.

9995% efficient in removing particles greater than 0.However, ULPA filters are more expensive than HEPA filters, and they increase the system static pressure.Note that any system designed to provide protection against radioactive particles can be expected to be effective against nanoparticles, and studies have confirmed that HEPA filters provide sufficient capture for nanoparticles (HHS/CDC/NIOSH, 2009a) making ULPA unnecessary.

These systems must be specified, purchased, and installed so that the filters can be changed without exposing the personnel or the environment to the agents trapped in the filter.Sterilizing the filter bank is prudent before changing filters that may contain etiologic agents.The bag-in, bag-out method of replacing filters is a popular way to prevent personnel exposure.This method separates the contaminated filter and housing from the personnel and the environment by using a special plastic barrier bag and special procedures to prevent exposure to or release of the hazardous agent.Thermal Oxidizers and Incinerators Thermal oxidizers and incinerators are extremely expensive to purchase, install, operate, and maintain.

However, they are one of the most effective methods of handling toxic and etiologic agents.The operational aspects of these devices are beyond the scope of this book.Also, their application to chemical hoods has historically been rare.When considering this method of pollution control, call an expert for assistance.Other Local Exhaust Systems Many types of laboratory equipment and apparatus that generate vapors and gases should not be used in a conventional laboratory chemical hood.Some examples are gas chromatographs, atomic absorption spectrophotometers, mixers, vacuum pumps, and ovens.If the vapors or gases emitted by these types of equipment are hazardous or noxious, or if it is undesirable to release them into the laboratory because of odor or heat, contain and remove them using local exhaust equipment.

Local capture equipment and systems should be designed only by an experienced engineer or industrial hygienist.Also, users of these devices must have appropriate training.

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Whether the emission source is a vacuum-pump discharge vent, a gas chromatograph exit port, or the top of a fractional distillation column, the local exhaust requirements are similar.The total airflow should be high enough to transport the volume of gases or vapors being emitted, and the capture velocity should be sufficient to collect the gases or vapors.Despite limitations, specific ventilation capture systems provide effective control of emissions of toxic vapors or dusts if installed and used correctly and, in some cases, can result in energy savings Making Warheads Jan 1988 Page 2 Google Books Result.

Despite limitations, specific ventilation capture systems provide effective control of emissions of toxic vapors or dusts if installed and used correctly and, in some cases, can result in energy savings.

A separate dedicated exhaust system is recommended.Do not attach the capture system to an existing laboratory chemical hood duct unless fan capacity is increased and airflow to both hoods is properly balanced Best websites to buy an engineering laboratory report Sophomore Bluebook Business Rewriting.Do not attach the capture system to an existing laboratory chemical hood duct unless fan capacity is increased and airflow to both hoods is properly balanced.One important consideration is the effect that such added local exhaust systems will have on the ventilation for the rest of the laboratory Best websites to buy an engineering laboratory report Sophomore Bluebook Business Rewriting.One important consideration is the effect that such added local exhaust systems will have on the ventilation for the rest of the laboratory.Each additional capture hood will be a new exhaust port in the laboratory and will compete with the existing exhaust sources for air supply.Downdraft ventilation has been used effectively to contain dusts and other dense particulates and high concentrations of heavy vapors that, because of their density, tend to fall.

Such systems require special engineering considerations to ensure that the particulates are transported in the airstream.Here again, consult a ventilation engineer or industrial hygienist if this type of system is deemed suitable for a particular laboratory operation.Elephant Trunks, Snorkels, or Extractors An elephant trunk, or snorkel, is a piece of flexible duct or hose connected to an exhaust system.To capture contaminants effectively, it must be closer than approximately one-half a diameter of the hood from the end of the hose.An elephant trunk is particularly effective for capturing discharges from gas chromatographs, pipe nipples, and pieces of tubing if the hose is placed directly on top of the discharge with the end of the discharge protruding to the hose.Note that unless the intake for the snorkel is placed very close to the point source, it will be susceptible to inefficient capture.

Newer designs mount the intake on an articulated arm, which tends to make the systems more effective and convenient to use.) The volume flow rate of the hose must be at least 110 to 150% of the flow rate of the discharge.The face velocity for a snorkel or elephant trunk is usually 150–200 fpm.The velocity and the capture efficiency drop sharply with distance from the intake.As a result, efficient capture of contaminants is generally adequate when the discharge source is 2 in.In cases where there is a question about efficacy of capture, perform a smoke test to determine if the flow rate is adequate (ACGIH, 2004).Slot Hoods Slot hoods are local exhaust ventilation hoods specially designed to capture contaminants generated according to a specific rate, distance in front of the hood, and release velocity for specific ambient airflow.In general, if designed properly, these hoods are more effective and operate using much less air than either elephant trunks or canopy hoods.To be effective, however, the geometry, flow rate, and static pressure must all be correct.Typical slot hoods are shown in Figure 9.Each type has different capture characteristics and applications.If laboratory personnel believe that one of these devices is necessary, a qualified ventilation engineer should design the hood and exhaust system.Clean Room Protocols The main objective of a clean room is to protect the materials and equipment from particulates.Whereas most laboratories maintain negative airflow with respect to adjacent nonlaboratory areas, clean rooms may be slightly positive.Thus, it is important to ensure that hazardous materials are stored in ventilated cabinets and work with volatile hazardous materials is done with proper ventilation.Depending on the clean room level, laboratory personnel may need to follow special protocols to minimize generation of particulates, including some or all of the following: Wear special clothing ranging from shoe covers-only to shoe covers and special laboratory coats to fully encapsulating bunny suits with head cover and beard cover.

Use an air shower before entering the clean room.Keep personal items out of the clean room.Use only specially made notebooks and paper in the clean room; no felt-tip pens (except permanent markers).Avoid bringing wood-pulp-based products into the clean room, such as magazines, books, regular tissues, and regular paper.Do not bring styrofoam or powders or any products that may produce dusts or aerosols into the clean room.

Laboratory Chemical Hoods and Laboratory Furniture in Clean Rooms Laboratory chemical hoods and laboratory furniture in clean rooms must be easy to clean and not subject to rust or chalking.

Most prefer not to use materials with painted surfaces, which may chalk or peel over time, or wood products that may form wood dusts.Stainless steel and thermoplastics are the most common materials.Polypropylene chemical hoods are commonplace in clean rooms.The main concern is that this material burns and melts very easily.

In the event of a fire, a polypropylene chemical hood may become fully involved.

For this reason, it is prudent to choose either a fire-retardant polypropylene or another thermoplastic or to install an automatic fire extinguisher within the hood.For nanomaterials, consider whether a chemical hood might be too turbulent for manipulating the materials.A biosafety cabinet, a ventilated enclosure with HEPA filtration, or a glovebox may be better alternatives.Environmental Rooms and Special Testing Laboratories Environmental rooms, either refrigeration cold rooms or warm rooms, for growth of organisms and cells, are designed and built to be closed air circulation systems.

Thus, the release of any toxic substance into these rooms poses potential dangers.Their contained atmosphere creates significant potential for the formation of aerosols and for cross-contamination of research projects.Control for these problems by preventing the release of aerosols or gases into the room.Special ventilation systems can be designed, but they will almost always degrade the temperature and humidity stability of the room.Special environmentally controlled cabinets are available to condition or store smaller quantities of materials at a much lower cost than in an environmental room.

Because environmental rooms have contained atmospheres, personnel who work inside them must be able to escape rapidly.Doors for these rooms should have magnetic latches (preferable) or breakaway handles to allow easy escape.These rooms should have emergency lighting so that a person will not be confined in the dark if the main power fails.Because these rooms are often missed when evaluating building alarm systems, be sure that the fire alarm or other alarm systems are audible and/or visible from inside the room.As is the case for other refrigerators, do not use volatile flammable solvents in cold rooms (see Chapter 7, section 7.

The exposed motors for the circulation fans can serve as a source of ignition and initiate an explosion.Avoid the use of volatile acids in these rooms, because such acids can corrode the cooling coils in the refrigeration system, which can lead to leaks of refrigerants.Also avoid other asphyxiants such as nitrogen gas in enclosed spaces.

Oxygen monitors and flammable gas detectors are recommended when the possibility of a low oxygen or flammable atmosphere exists in the room.2 provides some basic guidelines for working in environmental rooms.Alternatives to Environmental Rooms Shaker boxes may be a viable alternative to environmental rooms.These boxes come in a variety of shapes and sizes and may be stackable.They use less electricity, take up much less space, and have just as much control over the environment.

A shaker box is a sealed cabinet with a pull-out work surface.The user may control the environment within the cabinet, including the temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide level, lighting, and vibration.Shaker boxes may be used as incubators or for cooling, giving a full range of options.Biological Safety Cabinets and Biosafety Facilities BSCs are common containment and protection devices used in laboratories working with biological agents.BSCs and other facilities in which viable organisms are handled require special construction and operating procedures to protect laboratory personnel and the environment.Conventional chemical hoods should never be used to contain biological hazards.Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (HHS/CDC/NIH, 2007a), Primary Containment for Biohazards: Selection, Installation, and Use of Biological Safety Cabinets ((HHS/CDC/NIH, 2007b), and Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials (NRC, 1989) give detailed information on this subject.

Biosafety Cabinets A biosafety cabinet is specially designed and constructed to offer protection to the laboratory personnel and clean filtered air to the materials within the workspace.

A biosafety cabinet may also be effective for controlling nanoparticles.The three classes of biosafety cabinets for work with biological agents are briefly described below.For more information, see the guide Primary Containment for Biohazards: Selection, Installation, and Use of Biological Safety Cabinets (HHS/CDC/NIH, 2007b).A Class I biosafety cabinet does not provide a clean work environment but does provide some protection to the user.Like a chemical hood, it draws air through the face of the cabinet away from the user, across the work surface, through a set of HEPA filters, and back into the laboratory.

A Class II biosafety cabinet (Type A1, A2, B1, or B2) provides a clean work environment and protection to the user.Internal supply air passes through a HEPA filter in a downward laminar flow across the work surface, preventing cross-contamination.It works by drawing room air around laboratory personnel through slots in the work surface at the front of the cabinet, offering user protection.Air also is exhausted through a grill along the back of the cabinet and is either recirculated through HEPA filters to the internal workspace or passes through another set of filters to be exhausted to the room or through ductwork and out of the building.) A Class III biosafety cabinet provides maximum protection to laboratory personnel and the working environment.This type of cabinet is a glovebox with HEPA filter exhaust.Example of a Class II biosafety cabinet.Room air passes around the user through the grill at the front of the cabinet.

Filtered air passes into the cabinet over the materials, providing a clean environment for the materials in the cabinet.) A biosafety cabinet is generally not suited for work with hazardous chemicals.Most biosafety cabinets exhaust the contaminated air through HEPA filters back into the laboratory.This type of filter will not contain most hazardous materials, particularly gases, fumes, or vapors.

Even when connected to the laboratory exhaust system, a ducted biosafety cabinet may not provide enough containment for work with hazardous chemicals.For field testing of biosafety cabinets, consult NSF/ANSI Standard 49-2009.Some Class II biosafety cabinets may be connected to the laboratory exhaust system and may be touted as a combination biosafety cabinet and chemical hood.However, even when ducted, a biosafety cabinet may not provide adequate containment for work with hazardous materials.6 provides an overview of the characteristics of different types of biosafety cabinets.Training Program No matter how well a system is designed or maintained, no matter what lengths an institution has gone to for the sake of safety and energy conservation, if laboratory personnel do not use the equipment properly, individual users can defeat these efforts with their own behaviors.Laboratory personnel who insist on working at the edge of the laboratory chemical hood, raise the sash above its maximum operating height, defeat alarms, disable sash closures, do not move an elephant trunk close to the source, block baffles, use loose materials in the chemical hood and clog the ductwork, leave the sash open when not working at the chemical hood, fail to report that a filter needs to be changed reduce safety and sustainability efforts.Sometimes, these actions are due to lack of consideration; sometimes personnel may simply not understand the implications.All laboratory personnel should receive training that includes how to use the ventilation equipment, consequences of improper use, what to do in the event of a power outage, special considerations or rules for the equipment, significance of signage and postings.Training may be one-on-one, classroom, Web-based, or whatever format fits the culture of the institution and the needs of the laboratory.

Many laboratories, particularly academic research laboratories, experience high turnover rates.Good signage and postings complement training and act as constant reminders (Figure 9.Examples of postings for laboratory chemical hoods.Clockwise from top left: reminder to close the chemical hood sash, guide to checking the telltale ribbon taped to the sash of the chemical hood, reminder that a clean bench is not for hazardous chemicals, (more.

, setback mode tied to light switch), downtimes if the system has a setback mode that is on a timer, and reminder to lower the sash when not in active use.Inspection and Maintenance Maintenance is key to a ventilation system management program.The program should describe the elements of the inspection and maintenance program, including designation of who conducts inspections and how often; how inspections are recorded; ◦ ◦